Unit 12 Art and literature教学案
literature; Leonardo da Vinci; Pablo Picasso; romantic; comedy; exhibition; local; magic; power; trick; wonder; series; scar; forehead; Hogwarts; witchcraft; wizard; wizardry; miserable; treat; unhappy; goodness; habit; villager; shoulder; whisper; chamber; charm; stupid; password; sesame; compare; announcement; checklist
a series of; in trouble; come across; believe in; turn abound
运用所学语言,围绕文学艺术这一题材,完成教科书和练习册中规定的听、说、写的任务;阅读课文 “Art and literature”,确切理解并完成有关课文内容和练习；练习设计一张海报。
二、学 习 指 导
1）power n. 能力；力量；权力
例: Carrying this baggage requires a lot of power. 搬运这个行李要很大的力气。
This parrot has the power to imitate human words. 这只鹦鹉有模仿人类语言的能力。
The dictator held absolute power over his people. 那独裁者握有对人民的绝对权力。
come to/into power 掌握政权；得势
He came to power in 1987. 他1987年掌权。
2）trick n. 诡计；窍门；恶作剧
例：Her tears were just a trick to deceive others. 她的眼泪只是欺骗别人的诡计。
I haven’t got the trick of driving this car yet. 我还不晓得开这部车的诀窍。
Our children used to play tricks on us. 我们的小孩以前常常捉弄我们。
play a trick on sb. 捉弄某人
Trick or treat! 不请吃糖，就恶作剧！（万圣节孩子用语）
3）treat vt. 对待；视为；治疗；款待
例：They treated us with all respect. 他们郑重其事地接待我们。
You should treat your textbooks with more care. 你使用教科书要更加细心。
They treated him with a new drug. 他们用新药医治他的病。
He treated her for a broken arm. 他为她医治那条骨折的手臂。
It’s my turn to treat you tonight. 今晚轮到我请客。
She treated me to lunch. 她请我吃午饭。
treat… as … 把……当作……看待
My mother treated my proposal as a joke. 母亲把我的提议当玩笑看待。
We treated this matter as one of importance. 我们把此事视为重要问题。
类似的短语还有：look upon … as …; regard … as …; consider … as …; think of … as … 等等。
4) in trouble 处于困境中；在监禁中
例：She is in great trouble, so she needs your advice. 她遇到了很大的困难，所以需要你的忠告。
He was in trouble with the Customs. 他在海关那里有了麻烦。
ask/look for trouble 自讨苦吃；自找麻烦
get sb. into trouble 使某人陷入困境
put sb. to trouble 给某人增添麻烦
take the trouble to do 费神做；不辞劳苦地做
5）come across/upon 偶然遇到；碰上
例：We've just come across an old friend we haven't seen for ages.
含义基本相同的短语还有：ran into/across; meet（up）with
例：I ran across an old friend in the street. 我在街上碰到一位老朋友。
His car ran into the post.他的车撞到柱子上。
I met with an traffic accident.我遭遇到车祸。
I met up with an old classmate in the crowd. 我在人群中偶然遇到了一个老同学。
The President is to meet with the press this afternoon.总统预定今天下午会见记者。
6）believe in 和 believe
believe in 表示因可靠、有能力、品德好等原因而“信任”某人，属总的评价，常跟简单宾语，偶尔跟含动词ing形式的复合宾语; 而believe 表示相信某人某时某地所说的话，并不涉及对其总的评价，含有信以为真的意味。
例：I believe him. 我相信（他说的话）。
They believe him to have done it. 他们相信他做了这件事。
I believe him an honest student. 我相信他是个诚实的学生。
I believe in him. 我信任他。
I don’t believe in the theory. 我不相信这套理论。
7）habit n. 习惯；习性
例：It is his habit to jog before breakfast. 他习惯在早餐前慢跑。
She has a habit of playing with her hair while reading. 她在阅读时有玩弄头发的癖好。
be in the habit of doing sth. = have a/the habit of doing sth.
She is in the habit of listening to music while studying. 她有边读书边听音乐的习惯。
fall/get into the habit of doing sth. = form the habit of doing sth.养成做……的习惯
get out of the habit of doing sth. 改掉做……的习惯
He got out of the habit of smoking. 他改掉了吸烟的习惯。
例：compare one thing with another 将一物与另一物比较
Walking can't compare with flying. 走路比不上飞行。
Living in a town can't compare with living in the country in many respects.
Man's life is often compared to a candle. 人生常被喻为蜡烛。
The poet compares his lover to a rose in his poems.
compare常指为了找出两种事物或现象的异同点而进行比较， 如：If you compare Marx's works with Hegel's, you'll find many differences. 如果你把马克思的著作同黑格尔的著作相比较， 就会发现许多不同之处。
contrast 指两者之间的“对照”、“对比”， 着重指“通过两种事物或现象的对比， 突出地指出它们的不同”， 如：contrast farm life with city life 对照一下城乡生活。
1）It is a world of magic and wonders, a world where anything can happen. 这是一个存在着魔法和奇迹的世界，是一个任何事情都可能发生的世界。
本句中 “a world where anything can happen” 做同位语，而本身又包含一个where引导的定语从句。下文中的 “a boy with a scar on his forehead and a secret past” 也是同位语。
2）…，but they can still be friends if they share the same goals, hopes and dreams. 但是如果他们有着同样的目标、愿望和同样的梦想他们仍然可以成为朋友。
share (in) sth. 分享
share sth. with/between/among sb. （和某人）共同分享
We shared the sweets. 我们分吃了糖果。
They share their joys and sorrows. 他们同甘共苦。
Bill and Bob shared the work equally between them. 比尔和鲍勃两人把工作平分了。
3）The lady in the picture had such strange eyes that it was almost as if the woman in the picture was watching them. 画中女人的眼睛非常奇怪，就好像在窥视他们一样。
as if = as though 似乎是，好像是
例：She always talked to me as if/though she was my sister. 她总是以我妹妹的口气和我说话。
He walked slowly as if he had hurt his leg. 他慢慢地走，好像腿受伤的样子。
She looks as if she is going to cry. 她看起来似乎要哭了。
It looks as if we will be late. 看起来我们似乎会迟到。
4）…，and that not all of them were safe. 他们不是所有的人都安全。
这是一个部分否定句。这里我们也可以说 “all of them were not safe”。
再如：Not all of us are students. 我们不都是学生。
＝ All of us are not students.
完全否定应该是 none of 。
None of them were safe. 他们都不安全。
None of us are students. 我们都不是学生。
5）He was about to say something when Helen turned around. 他正要说话的时候，海伦转过身来。
be about to do sth. when … 正要做……，（突然）……
例：I was about to jump into the river for a swim when the guide shouted at me. 我正要跳下河游泳的时候向导向我大喊起来。
6）We need a password to get through the wall. 我们需要咒语穿过这堵墙。
get through 到达；做完；通过；度过；打通
例：The road ahead is narrow, so a truck can’t get through (it). 前面的路很窄，所以卡车没有办法通过。
How long does it take you to get through a letter? 你写一封信要花多长时间？
I called all day yesterday, but I couldn’t get through to you. 昨天我打了一天电话，但是没有办法联络到你。
7）She did not have time to finish before the wall started moving and a hole open up below the picture. 还没等她说完，墙开始移动，在画的下面露出一个洞口。
open up 展开, 打开；开发；揭露；开始
例：Coughing like that might open up your wound. 你那样咳嗽会把伤口震开。
New mines are opening up. 新矿正在开发。
He never opens up his shop on a Sunday. 星期天他的商店从不营业。
Open up the package. 打开这个包裹。
关系词 主语 宾语 表语 定语 状语
That 人/物 /物 √ × √
Which 物 物 × × √
Who 人 × × × ×
Whom × 人 × × ×
Whose × × × 人/物 ×
When × × × × √
Where × × × × √
Why × × × × √
例：There is still one thing which/that is not explained.（主语）
This is the boy who came yesterday. （主语）
This is the picture (which/that) he gave me. （宾语）
The car which was following us seems to have disappeared. （主语）
The woman whose daughter you met is Mrs. Brown. （定语）
This is the boy (whom) we met last night. （宾语）
┏ whose roof
The house ┣ the roof of which was damaged has now been repaired.
┗ of which the roof
┏ at which he works.
┣ which he works at.
That is the college ┣ where he works.
┣ that he works at.
┗ he works at.
┏ on which he was born
┣ which he was born on
The day ┣ when he was born was Aug.20,1952.
┣ that he was born on
┗ he was born on
┏ why he
The reason ┣ that he was dismissed is not difficult to explain.
┏ of whom you spoke
The man ┣ whom you spoke of is Joan’s father.
┣ that you spoke of
┗ you spoke of
This is the most interesting book that I have ever read.
② 先行词前有the first, the last, the only, the same, the very以及any, few, much, some, no等修饰时，通常用关系代词that;
You are the very boy (that) I want.
This is the last chance (that) you have. 这是你最后一次机会。
He is the last person (that) I want to see. 他是我最不想见的人。
Please send us any information (that) you have about the subject.
③ 先行词是much, little, none, all, any, no, everything, anything, nothing,等不定代词，通常用关系代词that;
This is all (that) I know.
There is nothing in the world that can frighten him.
Look at the boy and his sheep that are coming down the hill.
The boy and the dog that are in the picture are very lovely.
⑤ 当主句中有who, which时，而定语从句中也要用到who或which时，为了避免who…who, which…which等重叠，定语从句用that引导。
Who is the man that is standing by the door?
Which of the two cows that you keep produces more milk?
例：The man who was driving the car was drunk. 开车的那人喝醉了。
This is the place where the three roads meet. 这是三条路交汇的地方。
The house whose windows are broken is Mr. Smith’s. 窗户破损的房子是史密斯先生的。
I have two sisters, who are both students. 我有两个妹妹，她们都是学生。
I have lost the pen, which I like very much. 我弄丢了那支钢笔，是我非常喜欢的那支。
Tom broke his eyeglasses, which made his mother quite angry. 汤姆打碎了自己的眼镜，这使他妈妈非常生气。（关系代词which代表汤姆打碎眼镜这件事）
① as用作关系代词和关系副词引导限定性定语从句，并在从句中作定语、表语或状语，构成the same…as…, such…as…等结构。
例：I like the same book as you do. (as作宾语)
I shall do it in the same way as you did. (as作状语)
I want to have such a dictionary as he has. (as作宾语)
例：As we all know, he studies very hard. (as作宾语)
As is known to all, he is the best student in our class. (作主语)
常用的这种类似插入语的句式有as is said above, as is known to all, as it is等。
① 在定语从句中做主语的who, which 或that后的动词的数应根据先行词的人称和数来确定；
I want a girl who knows English.
I want three girls who know English.
He is one of the greatest men that are known to everyone.
He is the only one of the students who has been to Canada.
② 关系代词做介词的宾语时，介词可置于whom 或which的前面或句末，但关系代词that不可直接放在介词之后做宾语；
Is this the car for which you paid a high price?
= Is this the car which you paid a high price for?
= Is this the car that you paid a high price for?
= Is this the car you paid a high price for?
③ 关系副词 ＝ 介词＋which(关系代词)
where = in/at which when = at/in which why = for which
I can still remember the sitting-room where/in which my mother and I used to sit in the evening.
但为表意清楚，在关系副词where/when前可加介词from 或 to等。
China is the birthplace of kites, from where kite flying spread to Japan, Korea, Thailand and India.
④ that可代替关系副词when, why等，或省略。
┏ in which he
I am quite satisfied with the way ┣ that he has done it.
动词不定式事动词的一种非限定形式，由“to + 动词原形”构成，在句中起名词、形容词或副词的作用，同时也保留动词的一些特征，可以带宾语或状语。
例：He tried to work out the problem in five minutes. 他试图在五分钟之内算出这道题。（带宾语和状语）
例：I saw him go out. 我看见他出去了。
Thousands of young people are learning to ski. 数以千计的年轻人在学习滑雪。
例：I am very glad to be working with you. 我非常高兴能和你一起工作。
例：I am sorry to have kept you waiting. 对不起，让你久等了。
例：He asked to be sent to work in the countryside. 他请求被派往农村工作。
It is possible for our hopes to be realized. 我们的希望有实现的可能。
例：Do you have got a key to unlock the door? 你有开门的钥匙吗？
例：I have got a letter to write. 我又封信要写。
He needs a room to live in. 他需要一个房间。
例：The doctor recommended him to air the room. 医生建议他让房间透透气。
The doctor recommended the room to be aired.
不定式作表语形容词（easy, difficult, hard, fit等）的状语，和句中主语构成逻辑上的动宾关系时，不定式多用主动形式，可以看成时省略了动词的逻辑主语for us, for me, for you 等；
例：This book is difficult to read. 这本书很难读懂。
The food was not fit (for me) to eat. 这食物不能吃。
The path is easy to find. 这路很容易找到。
The film is great fun (=interesting) (for us) to see. 这部电影真有趣。
例：To see is to believe. 眼见为实。
例：It is right to give up smoking. 戒烟是正确的。
例：The next step is to make sure that you know exactly what is required. 下一步你要真正弄清楚需要的是什么。
My job is to help the patient. 我的工作是帮助病人。
They are to marry next week. （表示安排）他们下周结婚。
例：He wanted to go with us. 他想跟我们一起去。
feel, find, judge, make, think, believe, consider等动词后如果是动词不定式作宾语，补语是形容词(间或是名词)，常用it作形式宾语，把不定式后移。
例：I find it difficult to work with him. 我发现和他一起共事很难。
I thought it a great pity not to have invited her. 我认为没有邀请她是很大的遗憾。
agree, refuse, offer, promise, choose, decide, attempt, intend, manage, fail, ask, hope, want, expect, wish, desire, plan, prepare, learn, pretend等等。
例：He asked me to do the work with him. 他让我和他一起做这项工作。
在feel, hear, listen to, look at, notice, observe, see, watch, have, let, make等词后的补足语中，不定式不带to。但是这些句子如果变成被动结构时，就必须带to.
例：I often hear him sing the song. 我经常听到他唱歌。
He is often heard to sing the song.
例：I have some books for you to read. 我有些书给你读。
例：He is a pleasant fellow to work with. 他是个很好共事的人。
She bought a bookshelf to put her books on. 她买了一个书架放书。
There is nothing to worry about. 没有什么好担心的。
Please give me a knife to cut with. 请给我一把刀。
试比较：Do you have anything to send? 你有什么东西要寄吗？（不定式to send的动作执行者是you）
Do you have anything to be sent? 你有什么要（我或别人）寄的东西吗？（不定式to send的动作执行者是已被省略的me或someone else）
the first, the second, the last, the best等常跟动词不定式作定语。
例：He is always the first to answer questions in class. 他总是第一个在课堂上回答问题。
He would be the last to agree to the plan. 他决不会同意这个计划。
例：I came here to see you .(表目的) 我来这是为了看你。
We shall be very happy to cooperate with you in the project. （表原因）在此项目中与你们合作，我们非常高兴。
He hurried to the school to find nobody there. (表结果) 他匆忙地赶到学校，结果发现没人在那。
She is very polite to show us the way. (表结果) 她非常有礼貌地给我们指路。
To look at him, you would like him. (表条件) 如果你看见他，你就会喜欢他。
You couldn’t do that to save your life. (表条件) 你即使为了救自己的命也不能那样做。
We ran all the way so as not to be late. (表条件) 为了不迟到我们一路跑来。
They divided the work, John to wash the vegetables and Marry to cook the meal. (表伴随情况) 他们分了工，约翰洗菜，玛丽做饭。
例：To tell the truth, this is all Greek to me. 说实话，我对此一窍不通。
To be sure, we can do it. 当然，我们能做好的。
类似的还有：to be brief 简言之， to be exact 精确地说，to be frank with you 老实对你说吧，to be honest 说实话，to start/begin with 首先 等等。这些短语大都位于句首，偶尔位于句中或句尾，需用逗号同其它句子成分格开。
⑦不定式与疑问词who, which, when, where, how, what等连用，在句中起名词作用，可充当主语、表语、宾语等。
例：He didn’t know what to say. (宾语) 他不知道要说什么。
How to solve the problem is very important. （主语）如何解决问题非常重要。
My question is when to start. (表语) 我的问题是什么时候开始。