GETTING A GRANT
The local education authority (LEA) for the area in which the student is living.
Who can get this money?
Anyone who gets a place on a first degree course, although a student who has already attended a course of advanced further education may not. Students must also have been resident in the UK for at least three years, which can exclude some students from overseas.
If a student has worked before going to college?
A student who is 26 or more before the course starts and who has worked for at least three of the previous six years will get extra money – £155 a year if 26, increasing to a maximum of £615 at 29 or more.
If a student is handicapped?
LEAs will give up to £500 to help meet extra expenses – such as buying a tape recorder for a blind student, extra heating or special food.
Most of the big banks offer special services to students who open accounts (in the hope that they will stay with the bank when they become rich officials). A student won’t usually have to pay bank charges as long as the account stays in credit. Some banks allow students to overdraw by £100 or so, and still don’t make charges (though they do charge interest).
70. The phrase “a grant” in the first line most probably means _____.
A. bank interest B. a credit card C. an education fee D. financial aid
71. A student from Japan who has been studying in England for a year and intends to
go to college in a few months will _____.
A. be unable to get money from any LEA
B. get money if taking a first degree course
C. get money from LEA when finishing his course
D. have to open a bank account before getting money
72. A 31-year-old nurse wishes to qualify as a doctor at a university. She has worked
since she was 25. How much extra money will she get a year?
A. None. B. £155. C. £615. D. £515.
73. A big bank offers a new student special services because _____.
A. they need student accounts badly
B. they charge students extra interest
C. they know he can get money regularly
D. they hope he’ll be a potential customer
Publicity offers several benefits. There are not costs for message time or space. An ad in prime-time television may cost $250,000 to $5,000,000 or more per minute, whereas a five-minute report on a network newscast would not cost anything. Publicity reaches a mass audience within a short time and new products or company policies are widely known.
Credibility about messages is high, because they are reported in independent media. A newspaper review of a movie has more believability than an ad in the same paper, because the reader associates independence with objectivity. Similarly, people are more likely to pay attention to news reports than to ads. For example, Women’s Wear Daily has both fashion reports and advertisements. Readers spend time reading the stories, but they skim through the ads. Furthermore, there may be 10 commercials during a half-hour television program or hundreds of ads in a magazine. Feature stories are much fewer in number and stand out clearly.
Publicity also has some significant limitations. A firm has little control over messages, their timing, their placement, or their coverage by a given medium. It may issue detailed news releases and find only portions mentioned by the media, and media have the ability to be much more critical than a firm would like.
For example, in 1982, Procter & Gamble faced a massive publicity problem over the meaning of its 123-year-old company logo. To fight this negative publicity, the firm had a spokesperson appear on Good Morning America to disprove the rumor (谣言). The false rumors were temporarily put to rest. However, in 1985, publicity became so troublemaking that Procter & Gamble decided to remove the logo from its products.
A firm may want publicity during certain periods, such as when a new product is introduced or new store opened, but the media may not cover the introduction or opening until after the time it would aid the firm. Similarly, media determine the placement of a story; it may follow a report on crime or sports. Finally, the media decide whether to cover a story at all and the amount of coverage to be devoted to it.
74. All of the following advantages of publicity are mentioned EXCEPT _____.
A. time saving B. attentiveness C. credibility D. profitability
75. Compared with ad, news report or featuring stories are more _____.
A. believable B. clear C. dependent D. subjective
76. The example of “Procter & Gamble” is given to show _____.
A. the efficient way of disproving rumors B. the importance of a spokesperson
C. the interaction between firms and media D. the negative effect of publicity
77. What’s the author’s attitude towards publicity?
A. doubtful B. objective C. passive D. supportive