Three years ago I listened to a lecture on cognition that changed the way I think about intelligence. There are two types of cognition, and the first is normal cognition the ability to regain knowledge from memory. The second type of cognition is metacognition(元认知) the ability to know whether or not you know.
Does this affect intelligence? In traditional education, intelligence is measured by cognitive ability. Some people can easily produce everything they know on a test. But others are awarded with poor grades and considered inferior (not as good as). But does this inability make them any less intelligent? If the question came up on a task, they could refer to a book or a quick Google search. In reality they’re just as effective as the people that ace a test. They just can’t prove it as easily.
Metacognition is more important to success than cognition. A person with poor cognitive ability, but great metacognitive ability might do poorly in school, but when faced with a challenge, they understand their abilities and take the best course of action. For example, when faced with a question, a person with strong metacognitive ability will deal with it like this. If he knows the answer, but can’t come up with it, he can always do a bit of research. If he knows for sure that he doesn’t know, then he can start educating himself. Because he’s aware of his ignorance, he doesn’t act with foolish confidence. These people might not seem intelligent at first glance, but because they know what they know, they make better decisions and learn the most important things.
However, people with great cognitive ability but poor metacognitive ability may be considered excellent at a young age for acing every test and getting great SAT scores. Unfortunately, they’ve been ruined by poor metacognition they think they know everything but they really don’t. They are arrogant (overconfident), fail to learn from mistakes, and don’t understand the slight differences of personal relationships, showing disregard for persons with lower cognitive ability. They may make the worst decisions.
The most important mental power is the ability to know what you don’t know .The recognition of a fault is the first step to improvement. Don’t try to hide a lack of knowledge. For intelligent people this is the toughest lesson to learn.
【小题1】People with great cognitive ability tend to ______________.
A. do well in tests B. be considered inferior
C. be more effective than others D. do research when faced with a task
【小题2】The underlined phrase “take the best course of action,” probably means______.
A. starting educating himself B. taking action during the course
C. making the right decision D. coming up with many ideas
【小题3】People with poor metacognition may not succeed because they ________.
A. lack basic moral values B. have improper self evaluation
C. fail to communicate with others D. show little respect for others
【小题4】 The author probably supports the idea that ___________.
A. intelligence is measured by cognitive ability
B. cognition is the most important mental power
C. the toughest lesson is to distinguish the two types of cognition
D. the awareness of one’s ignorance contributes to one’s improvement
【小题1】细节题：从第二段的句子：In traditional education, intelligence is measured by cognitive ability. Some people can easily produce everything they know on a test. 可知认知能力强的人考试考得好，选A
【小题2】句意理解题：从这段的最后一句话：they make better decisions and learn the most important things.可知元认知能力强的人，意识到自己的弱点会做出正确的决定，选C
The regular use of text messages and e-mails can lower the IQ more than twice as much as smoking marijuana (大麻). That is the statement of researchers who have found that tapping away on a mobile phone or computer keyboard or checking for electronic messages temporarily knocks up to 10 points off the user’s IQ. This rate of decline in intelligence compared unfavorably with the four-point drop in IQ associated with smoking marijuana, according to British researchers, who have described the phenomenon of improved stupidity as “infomania”. The research conducted by Hewlett Packard, the technology company, has concluded that it is mainly a problem for adult workers, especially men.
It is concluded that too much use of modern technology can damage a person’s mind. It can cause a constant distraction of “always on” technology when employees should be concentrating on what they are paid to do. Infomania means that they lose concentration as their minds remain fixed in an almost permanent state of readiness to react to technology instead of focusing on the task in hand. The report also added that, in a long term, the brain will be considerably shaped by what we do to it and by the experience of daily life. At a microcellular(微蜂窝，微孔的) level, the complex networks of nerve cells that make up parts of the brain actually change in response to certain experiences.
Too much use of modern technology can be damaging not only to a person’s mind, but to their social relationship. 1100 adults were interviewed during the research. More than 62 percent of them admitted that they were addicted to checking their e-mails and text messages so often that they scrutinized work-related ones even when at home or on holiday. Half said that they always responded immediately to an e-mail and will even interrupt a meeting to do so. It is concluded that infomania is increasing stress and anxiety and affecting one’s characteristics. Nine out of ten thought that colleagues who answered e-mails or messages during a face-to-face meeting were extremely rude.
The effects on IQ were studied by Dr. Glenn Wilson, a psychologist at University of London. “This is a very real and widespread phenomenon,” he said. “We have found that infomania will damage a worker’s performance by reducing their mental sharpness and changing their social life. Companies should encourage a more balanced and appropriate way of working.”