高一英语教案:Unit12 Art and literature

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编辑点评: 在进行英语教学时,准备一份教案是非常有必要的,因为每堂课上都要涉及很多知识点,如果没有事先准备教案很容易遗漏一些知识点,这都不是我们想看到的。本文是一篇冀教版高一英语第12单元 Art and literature的教案,供大家参考。

在限定性定语从句中作宾语的关系代词可以省略。
   例:There is still one thing which/that is not explained.(主语)
This is the boy who came yesterday. (主语)
       This is the picture (which/that) he gave me. (宾语)
       The car which was following us seems to have disappeared. (主语)
       The woman whose daughter you met is Mrs. Brown. (定语)
       This is the boy (whom) we met last night. (宾语)
      
屋顶被毁坏的房子已经被修好。
                 ┏ whose roof
The house  ┣ the roof of which     was damaged has now been repaired.
                 ┗ of which the roof
       那就是他工作的大学。
                ┏ at which he works.
                ┣ which he works at.  
      That is the college     ┣ where he works.
                ┣ that he works at.
                ┗ he works at.
        他出生的那一天是1952年8月20日。
          ┏ on which he was born
          ┣ which he was born on
      The day ┣ when he was born        was Aug.20,1952.
          ┣ that he was born on
          ┗ he was born on
        他被解雇的原因不难解释。
                   ┏ why he
The reason  ┣ that he      was dismissed is not difficult to explain.
           ┗ he
        你提到的那个人时琼的爸爸。
                ┏ of whom you spoke
        The man ┣ whom you spoke of     is Joan’s father.
                ┣ that you spoke of
                ┗ you spoke of
    (2)只用关系代词that 的情况:
     ① 先行词前有形容词最高级修饰时,通常用关系代词that;
      This is the most interesting book that I have ever read.
     ② 先行词前有the first, the last, the only, the same, the very以及any, few, much, some, no等修饰时,通常用关系代词that;
      You are the very boy (that) I want.
      This is the last chance (that) you have. 这是你最后一次机会。
      He is the last person (that) I want to see. 他是我最不想见的人。
      Please send us any information (that) you have about the subject.
     ③ 先行词是much, little, none, all, any, no, everything, anything, nothing,等不定代词,通常用关系代词that;
      This is all (that) I know.
      There is nothing in the world that can frighten him.
     ④ 先行词由“人+物”构成时,通常用关系代词that;
      Look at the boy and his sheep that are coming down the hill.
      The boy and the dog that are in the picture are very lovely.
     ⑤ 当主句中有who, which时,而定语从句中也要用到who或which时,为了避免who…who, which…which等重叠,定语从句用that引导。
  Who is the man that is standing by the door?
  Which of the two cows that you keep produces more milk?
   (3)限定性定语从句和非限定性定语从句
        限定性定语从句是句中不可缺少的组成部分,主句和从句之间不用逗号分开。而非限定性定语从句是对主句先行词的补充说明,没有从句不影响主句的意思完整。一般用逗号把主句和从句分开。不用关系代词that。非限定性定语从句的关系代词有时可以代表整个主句的含义,在非限定性定语从句中,作宾语的关系代词不能省略。
       例:The man who was driving the car was drunk. 开车的那人喝醉了。
           This is the place where the three roads meet.  这是三条路交汇的地方。
           The house whose windows are broken is Mr. Smith’s. 窗户破损的房子是史密斯先生的。
           I have two sisters, who are both students. 我有两个妹妹,她们都是学生。
           I have lost the pen, which I like very much.  我弄丢了那支钢笔,是我非常喜欢的那支。
           Tom broke his eyeglasses, which made his mother quite angry. 汤姆打碎了自己的眼镜,这使他妈妈非常生气。(关系代词which代表汤姆打碎眼镜这件事)
   (4)as引导的定语从句
      ① as用作关系代词和关系副词引导限定性定语从句,并在从句中作定语、表语或状语,构成the same…as…, such…as…等结构。
        例:I like the same book as you do. (as作宾语)
          I shall do it in the same way as you did. (as作状语)
          I want to have such a dictionary as he has. (as作宾语)
      ② as引导非限定性定语从句。as在定语从句中作主语、表语或宾语,这个定语从句是说明整个句子,它可以放在主句之前。
        例:As we all know, he studies very hard. (as作宾语)
          As is known to all, he is the best student in our class. (作主语)
        常用的这种类似插入语的句式有as is said above, as is known to all, as it is等。
       注意:关系代词在从句中作主语时,从句的谓语动词的人称和数必须和先行词保持一致;关系代词which和as在定语从句中的区别是:which不能放在句首,而as则可以;在句中时,as有“正如”、“就像”之意,而which没有。
     (5)其它注意事项:
      ① 在定语从句中做主语的who, which 或that后的动词的数应根据先行词的人称和数来确定;
        I want a girl who knows English.
        I want three girls who know English.
        He is one of the greatest men that are known to everyone.
        He is the only one of the students who has been to Canada.
      ② 关系代词做介词的宾语时,介词可置于whom 或which的前面或句末,但关系代词that不可直接放在介词之后做宾语;
        Is this the car for which you paid a high price?
        = Is this the car which you paid a high price for?
        = Is this the car that you paid a high price for?
        = Is this the car you paid a high price for?
      ③ 关系副词 = 介词+which(关系代词)
         where = in/at which    when = at/in which   why = for which
         I can still remember the sitting-room where/in which my mother and I used to sit in the evening.
         但为表意清楚,在关系副词where/when前可加介词from 或 to等。
         China is the birthplace of kites, from where kite flying spread to Japan, Korea, Thailand and India.
      ④ that可代替关系副词when, why等,或省略。
      
                                   ┏ in which he
I am quite satisfied with the way  ┣ that he         has done it.
                            ┗ he
   2) 动词不定式
    (1) 构成与特征
       动词不定式事动词的一种非限定形式,由“to + 动词原形”构成,在句中起名词、形容词或副词的作用,同时也保留动词的一些特征,可以带宾语或状语。
     例:He tried to work out the problem in five minutes. 他试图在五分钟之内算出这道题。(带宾语和状语)
    (2) 不定式的时态和语态
       不定式的时态:
    ①不定式的一般式:不定式的一般式表示的动作与谓语的动作式同时发生的或是在其后发生的;
     例:I saw him go out. 我看见他出去了。
         Thousands of young people are learning to ski. 数以千计的年轻人在学习滑雪。
    ②不定式的进行式:不定式的进行式表示的动作与谓语动词的动作是同时的,而且正在进行着;
     例:I am very glad to be working with you. 我非常高兴能和你一起工作。
    ③不定式的完成式:不定式的完成式表示的动作发生在谓语动词的动作之前。
     例:I am sorry to have kept you waiting.  对不起,让你久等了。
       不定式的语态:
     当不定式的逻辑主语是这个不定式所表示的动作的承受者时,不定式一般要用被动形式。
     例:He asked to be sent to work in the countryside. 他请求被派往农村工作。
         It is possible for our hopes to be realized. 我们的希望有实现的可能。
      注意: 不定式在句中用主动形式还是被动形式,多数情况下时容易判断的,但有时的确比较复杂,请注意以下几点:
      不定式修饰的名词或代词和不定式构成了逻辑上的主谓关系,不定式往往用主动形式;
例:Do you have got a key to unlock the door?  你有开门的钥匙吗?
      不定式修饰的名词或代词和不定式构成了逻辑上的动宾关系,又和该句的主语构成逻辑上的主谓关系时,不定式常用主动形式;
     例:I have got a letter to write.  我又封信要写。
         He needs a room to live in. 他需要一个房间。
      不定式修饰的名词或代词和不定式构成了逻辑上的动宾关系,不定式用被动形式;
     例:The doctor recommended him to air the room. 医生建议他让房间透透气。
         The doctor recommended the room to be aired.
       不定式作表语形容词(easy, difficult, hard, fit等)的状语,和句中主语构成逻辑上的动宾关系时,不定式多用主动形式,可以看成时省略了动词的逻辑主语for us, for me, for you 等;
     例:This book is difficult to read.  这本书很难读懂。
         The food was not fit (for me) to eat. 这食物不能吃。
         The path is easy to find. 这路很容易找到。
         The film is great fun (=interesting) (for us) to see. 这部电影真有趣。
    (3) 功能
     ①作主语
      例:To see is to believe. 眼见为实。
      不定式短语作主语时,往往由it代替它作形式主语,不定式移至谓语之后。
      例:It is right to give up smoking. 戒烟是正确的。
     ②作表语
      例:The next step is to make sure that you know exactly what is required. 下一步你要真正弄清楚需要的是什么。
          My job is to help the patient. 我的工作是帮助病人。
          They are to marry next week. (表示安排)他们下周结婚。
     ③作宾语
      例:He wanted to go with us. 他想跟我们一起去。
      feel, find, judge, make, think, believe, consider等动词后如果是动词不定式作宾语,补语是形容词(间或是名词),常用it作形式宾语,把不定式后移。
      例:I find it difficult to work with him. 我发现和他一起共事很难。
          I thought it a great pity not to have invited her. 我认为没有邀请她是很大的遗憾。
      下列动词常跟不定式作宾语:
      agree, refuse, offer, promise, choose, decide, attempt, intend, manage, fail, ask, hope, want, expect, wish, desire, plan, prepare, learn, pretend等等。
     ④作宾语不足语
      例:He asked me to do the work with him. 他让我和他一起做这项工作。
      在feel, hear, listen to, look at, notice, observe, see, watch, have, let, make等词后的补足语中,不定式不带to。但是这些句子如果变成被动结构时,就必须带to.
      例:I often hear him sing the song. 我经常听到他唱歌。
          He is often heard to sing the song.
     ⑤作定语
      例:I have some books for you to read. 我有些书给你读。
      动词不定式与其修饰的词之间往往有动宾关系,如果该不定式是不及物动词,其后应有必要的介词。
     例:He is a pleasant fellow to work with. 他是个很好共事的人。
         She bought a bookshelf to put her books on. 她买了一个书架放书。
         There is nothing to worry about. 没有什么好担心的。
         Please give me a knife to cut with. 请给我一把刀。
     当作定语的动词不定式所修饰的名词或代词是不定式动作的承受者时,不定式既可以用主动语态,也可以用被动语态,当其含义有所不同。
   试比较:Do you have anything to send? 你有什么东西要寄吗?(不定式to send的动作执行者是you)
           Do you have anything to be sent? 你有什么要(我或别人)寄的东西吗?(不定式to send的动作执行者是已被省略的me或someone else)
     the first, the second, the last, the best等常跟动词不定式作定语。
     例:He is always the first to answer questions in class. 他总是第一个在课堂上回答问题。
         He would be the last to agree to the plan. 他决不会同意这个计划。
    ⑥作状语
    不定式作状语的情况很多,可以表示目的、结果、原因或条件等。
    例:I came here to see you .(表目的) 我来这是为了看你。
        We shall be very happy to cooperate with you in the project. (表原因)在此项目中与你们合作,我们非常高兴。
        He hurried to the school to find nobody there. (表结果) 他匆忙地赶到学校,结果发现没人在那。
        She is very polite to show us the way. (表结果) 她非常有礼貌地给我们指路。
        To look at him, you would like him. (表条件) 如果你看见他,你就会喜欢他。
        You couldn’t do that to save your life. (表条件) 你即使为了救自己的命也不能那样做。
        We ran all the way so as not to be late. (表条件) 为了不迟到我们一路跑来。
        They divided the work, John to wash the vegetables and Marry to cook the meal. (表伴随情况) 他们分了工,约翰洗菜,玛丽做饭。
     不定式可以表明说话人的态度,在句中作独立成分。
     例:To tell the truth, this is all Greek to me. 说实话,我对此一窍不通。
         To be sure, we can do it. 当然,我们能做好的。
     类似的还有:to be brief 简言之, to be exact 精确地说,to be frank with you 老实对你说吧,to be honest 说实话,to start/begin with 首先 等等。这些短语大都位于句首,偶尔位于句中或句尾,需用逗号同其它句子成分格开。
    ⑦不定式与疑问词who, which, when, where, how, what等连用,在句中起名词作用,可充当主语、表语、宾语等。
    例:He didn’t know what to say. (宾语) 他不知道要说什么。
        How to solve the problem is very important. (主语)如何解决问题非常重要。
        My question is when to start. (表语) 我的问题是什么时候开始。

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