例：There is still one thing which/that is not explained.（主语）
This is the boy who came yesterday. （主语）
This is the picture (which/that) he gave me. （宾语）
The car which was following us seems to have disappeared. （主语）
The woman whose daughter you met is Mrs. Brown. （定语）
This is the boy (whom) we met last night. （宾语）
┏ whose roof
The house ┣ the roof of which was damaged has now been repaired.
┗ of which the roof
┏ at which he works.
┣ which he works at.
That is the college ┣ where he works.
┣ that he works at.
┗ he works at.
┏ on which he was born
┣ which he was born on
The day ┣ when he was born was Aug.20,1952.
┣ that he was born on
┗ he was born on
┏ why he
The reason ┣ that he was dismissed is not difficult to explain.
┏ of whom you spoke
The man ┣ whom you spoke of is Joan’s father.
┣ that you spoke of
┗ you spoke of
This is the most interesting book that I have ever read.
② 先行词前有the first, the last, the only, the same, the very以及any, few, much, some, no等修饰时，通常用关系代词that;
You are the very boy (that) I want.
This is the last chance (that) you have. 这是你最后一次机会。
He is the last person (that) I want to see. 他是我最不想见的人。
Please send us any information (that) you have about the subject.
③ 先行词是much, little, none, all, any, no, everything, anything, nothing,等不定代词，通常用关系代词that;
This is all (that) I know.
There is nothing in the world that can frighten him.
Look at the boy and his sheep that are coming down the hill.
The boy and the dog that are in the picture are very lovely.
⑤ 当主句中有who, which时，而定语从句中也要用到who或which时，为了避免who…who, which…which等重叠，定语从句用that引导。
Who is the man that is standing by the door?
Which of the two cows that you keep produces more milk?
例：The man who was driving the car was drunk. 开车的那人喝醉了。
This is the place where the three roads meet. 这是三条路交汇的地方。
The house whose windows are broken is Mr. Smith’s. 窗户破损的房子是史密斯先生的。
I have two sisters, who are both students. 我有两个妹妹，她们都是学生。
I have lost the pen, which I like very much. 我弄丢了那支钢笔，是我非常喜欢的那支。
Tom broke his eyeglasses, which made his mother quite angry. 汤姆打碎了自己的眼镜，这使他妈妈非常生气。（关系代词which代表汤姆打碎眼镜这件事）
① as用作关系代词和关系副词引导限定性定语从句，并在从句中作定语、表语或状语，构成the same…as…, such…as…等结构。
例：I like the same book as you do. (as作宾语)
I shall do it in the same way as you did. (as作状语)
I want to have such a dictionary as he has. (as作宾语)
例：As we all know, he studies very hard. (as作宾语)
As is known to all, he is the best student in our class. (作主语)
常用的这种类似插入语的句式有as is said above, as is known to all, as it is等。
① 在定语从句中做主语的who, which 或that后的动词的数应根据先行词的人称和数来确定；
I want a girl who knows English.
I want three girls who know English.
He is one of the greatest men that are known to everyone.
He is the only one of the students who has been to Canada.
② 关系代词做介词的宾语时，介词可置于whom 或which的前面或句末，但关系代词that不可直接放在介词之后做宾语；
Is this the car for which you paid a high price?
= Is this the car which you paid a high price for?
= Is this the car that you paid a high price for?
= Is this the car you paid a high price for?
③ 关系副词 ＝ 介词＋which(关系代词)
where = in/at which when = at/in which why = for which
I can still remember the sitting-room where/in which my mother and I used to sit in the evening.
但为表意清楚，在关系副词where/when前可加介词from 或 to等。
China is the birthplace of kites, from where kite flying spread to Japan, Korea, Thailand and India.
④ that可代替关系副词when, why等，或省略。
┏ in which he
I am quite satisfied with the way ┣ that he has done it.
动词不定式事动词的一种非限定形式，由“to + 动词原形”构成，在句中起名词、形容词或副词的作用，同时也保留动词的一些特征，可以带宾语或状语。
例：He tried to work out the problem in five minutes. 他试图在五分钟之内算出这道题。（带宾语和状语）
例：I saw him go out. 我看见他出去了。
Thousands of young people are learning to ski. 数以千计的年轻人在学习滑雪。
例：I am very glad to be working with you. 我非常高兴能和你一起工作。
例：I am sorry to have kept you waiting. 对不起，让你久等了。
例：He asked to be sent to work in the countryside. 他请求被派往农村工作。
It is possible for our hopes to be realized. 我们的希望有实现的可能。
例：Do you have got a key to unlock the door? 你有开门的钥匙吗？
例：I have got a letter to write. 我又封信要写。
He needs a room to live in. 他需要一个房间。
例：The doctor recommended him to air the room. 医生建议他让房间透透气。
The doctor recommended the room to be aired.
不定式作表语形容词（easy, difficult, hard, fit等）的状语，和句中主语构成逻辑上的动宾关系时，不定式多用主动形式，可以看成时省略了动词的逻辑主语for us, for me, for you 等；
例：This book is difficult to read. 这本书很难读懂。
The food was not fit (for me) to eat. 这食物不能吃。
The path is easy to find. 这路很容易找到。
The film is great fun (=interesting) (for us) to see. 这部电影真有趣。
例：To see is to believe. 眼见为实。
例：It is right to give up smoking. 戒烟是正确的。
例：The next step is to make sure that you know exactly what is required. 下一步你要真正弄清楚需要的是什么。
My job is to help the patient. 我的工作是帮助病人。
They are to marry next week. （表示安排）他们下周结婚。
例：He wanted to go with us. 他想跟我们一起去。
feel, find, judge, make, think, believe, consider等动词后如果是动词不定式作宾语，补语是形容词(间或是名词)，常用it作形式宾语，把不定式后移。
例：I find it difficult to work with him. 我发现和他一起共事很难。
I thought it a great pity not to have invited her. 我认为没有邀请她是很大的遗憾。
agree, refuse, offer, promise, choose, decide, attempt, intend, manage, fail, ask, hope, want, expect, wish, desire, plan, prepare, learn, pretend等等。
例：He asked me to do the work with him. 他让我和他一起做这项工作。
在feel, hear, listen to, look at, notice, observe, see, watch, have, let, make等词后的补足语中，不定式不带to。但是这些句子如果变成被动结构时，就必须带to.
例：I often hear him sing the song. 我经常听到他唱歌。
He is often heard to sing the song.
例：I have some books for you to read. 我有些书给你读。
例：He is a pleasant fellow to work with. 他是个很好共事的人。
She bought a bookshelf to put her books on. 她买了一个书架放书。
There is nothing to worry about. 没有什么好担心的。
Please give me a knife to cut with. 请给我一把刀。
试比较：Do you have anything to send? 你有什么东西要寄吗？（不定式to send的动作执行者是you）
Do you have anything to be sent? 你有什么要（我或别人）寄的东西吗？（不定式to send的动作执行者是已被省略的me或someone else）
the first, the second, the last, the best等常跟动词不定式作定语。
例：He is always the first to answer questions in class. 他总是第一个在课堂上回答问题。
He would be the last to agree to the plan. 他决不会同意这个计划。
例：I came here to see you .(表目的) 我来这是为了看你。
We shall be very happy to cooperate with you in the project. （表原因）在此项目中与你们合作，我们非常高兴。
He hurried to the school to find nobody there. (表结果) 他匆忙地赶到学校，结果发现没人在那。
She is very polite to show us the way. (表结果) 她非常有礼貌地给我们指路。
To look at him, you would like him. (表条件) 如果你看见他，你就会喜欢他。
You couldn’t do that to save your life. (表条件) 你即使为了救自己的命也不能那样做。
We ran all the way so as not to be late. (表条件) 为了不迟到我们一路跑来。
They divided the work, John to wash the vegetables and Marry to cook the meal. (表伴随情况) 他们分了工，约翰洗菜，玛丽做饭。
例：To tell the truth, this is all Greek to me. 说实话，我对此一窍不通。
To be sure, we can do it. 当然，我们能做好的。
类似的还有：to be brief 简言之， to be exact 精确地说，to be frank with you 老实对你说吧，to be honest 说实话，to start/begin with 首先 等等。这些短语大都位于句首，偶尔位于句中或句尾，需用逗号同其它句子成分格开。
⑦不定式与疑问词who, which, when, where, how, what等连用，在句中起名词作用，可充当主语、表语、宾语等。
例：He didn’t know what to say. (宾语) 他不知道要说什么。
How to solve the problem is very important. （主语）如何解决问题非常重要。
My question is when to start. (表语) 我的问题是什么时候开始。
高一英语教案：Unit 2 Growing pains（2）
一份优秀教案往往凝聚着设计者教育思想、智慧、动机、经验、个性和教学艺术性。而一份优秀的教案恰恰能帮助我们有效地开展教学活动。对于英语教学更是如此，由于英语涉及的知识点比较多，这份教案更是需要教师费劲心思。本文是一篇译林牛津版高一英语第2单元 Growing pains 的教案，供老师们参考。
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