1. by reason of 由于
（1）He escaped a prison sentence by reason of unsound mind at the time the crime was committed.
（2）By reason of his lameness the boy could not play games.
2. by the way 顺便说说
（1） By the way , what time is it?
（2）Yes, I did know about your new car — and by the way, Queen Anne's dead.
是的, 我的确知道你买了辆新车——顺便说一下, 这已不是新闻了。
3. by virtue of 借助,由于
（1）He had won the game by virtue of his strength of will.
（2）Molecules rotate and vibrate by virtue of their heat.
4. by way of 路经；途经；作为；意在
（1）I had better say a few words by way of explanation.
（2）They're going to Poland by way of France and Germany.
拓展：by the way,by the way of 与 by way of
by the way 在途中、顺路、顺便说，如
By the way, what time is it?
by the way of 用某种方法（手段）去做，如
New employees can share incentive stocks, by the way of reserving.
by way of 作为、当作；为了、意在；在……之中，如
I had better say a few words by way of explanation.
5. call off 转移（某人的注意力等）；取消；点名；把…叫走
（1）Don't let anything call off your attention from your studies.
（2）Since the weather is bad, let's call off the trip.