Before I had my son, I spent two years working with children with disabilities. I learned that shouting and threats of punishment would result in a disaster. Coming up against their behavior could only make the job harder and their behavior more extreme. I found something that worked, though.
There was a very naughty boy in the nursery and a teacher who was generally very confident with the children was asked to take charge of him. One day the boy joined a session in the room next to mine. His appearance created an atmosphere of tension. He spent the entire session running around, hitting and kicking, and destroying property.
I was in the craft room working with some other children when my co-worker told me that this boy’s teacher was in tears, and could not get control of the situation. As we were talking, the boy ran in. I told my co-worker that I would take care of him.
I closed the door. He was full of energy, throwing things around and making a huge mess. But I could see that he was doing all these to annoying me. He needed connection, and this was the only way he knew how to ask for it. So I sat back down and kept quiet. Then he slowed down and began making a rocket. I talked to him about it. We continued like this for a few minutes before I slipped into the conversation:
“So what happened today?”
It was purely a question, no blame or anger in my tone, I believe that if I had criticized him, the gate that was slowly opening would have shut firmly closed. He told me that the teacher didn’t let him do what he knew well due to safety but asked him to do what he disliked. He also admitted that he had enjoyed making her run around and saw it as a game. I explained that his teacher had not seen it as a game and was very upset. This again was stated simply as a fact. I suggested that next time he had a session, he talk about what he hoped to do at the start, which might be easier for everyone. He agreed and was quiet for a moment. Then he looked at me with tears in his eyes before quietly asking if he could go to find his teacher to apologize.
51. The boy made trouble for his teacher because he______.
A. was blamed for creating an air of tension
B. was made to do things against his will
C. was told not to yell at other children
D. was accused of destroying property
【解析】细节理解题。根据题干要求The boy made trouble for his teacher because he______.可以定位文中最后一段He told me that the teacher didn’t let him do what he knew well due to safety but asked him to do what he disliked. 因 此，选B. was made to do things against his will。答案在文中较后面的部分， 考生容易受到前面文章内容的影响
52. Why didn’t the author do anything about the boy’s bad behavior at first?
A. She hadn’t thought of a coping strategy.
B. She was tired of shouting and threats.
C. She didn’t mind the huge mess at all.
D. She didn’t want to make it worse.
【解析】细节理解题。题干问作者为什么一开始不去纠正这个男孩的不良行 为？答案可定位至第四段第二至三行But I could see that he was doing all these to annoy me.He needed connection,and this was the only way he knew how to ask for it.So I sat back down and kept quiet.可得出答案为D. She didn’t want to make it worse.同时，作者处理这件事的方式与全文主题句I learned that shouting and threats of punishment would result in a disaster相对应。
53. The author managed to get the boy to talk to her by__________
A. avoiding making critical remarks
B. describing his teacher’s feelings
C. giving him a good suggestion
D. playing games with him
【解析】细节理解题。题干问作者通过什么方式使得男孩愿意交流自己的想法？文章第六段的第二句句给出了答案I believe that if I had criticized him, the gate that was slowly opening would have shut firmly closed.答案为A项Avoiding making critical remarks.
54. Why did the boy have tears in his eyes in the end?
A. He was sad for the author’s misunderstanding.
B. He was fearful of the author’s warning.
C. He was regretful about his behavior.
D. He was sorry about his reputation.
【解析】细节理解题。题干意思为：为什么这个男孩最后哭了。根据文章最后一段最后一句Then he looked at me with tears in his eyes before quietly asking if he could go to find his teacher to apologize可知：男孩要向老师道歉，因此为自己之前的行为感到后悔，所以答案为C. He was regretful about his behavior
BLondon’s newest skyscraper (摩天大楼) is called the Shard and it cost about 430 million pounds to build. At a height of almost 310 metres, it is the tallest building in Europe. The Shard has completely changed the appearance of London. However, not everyone thinks that it is a change for the better.
The Shard was designed by the famous Italian architect Renzo Piano. When he began designing the Shard for London, Piano wanted a very tall building that looked like a spire (尖顶). He wanted the glass surfaces to reflect the sky and the city. The sides of the building aren’t regular. So the building has an unusual shape. It looks like a very thin, sharp piece of broken glass. And that is how the building got the name: the Shard. Piano says that the spire shape of the Shard is part of a great London tradition. The shape reminds him of the spires of the churches of London or the tall masts (桅杆) of the ships that were once on the river Thames.
The Shard has 87 floors. At the top, there is an observatory. At the moment the building is empty, but eventually there will be a five-star hotel. There will also be top quality restaurants, apartments and offices.
Before building work began, a lot of people didn’t want the Shard though the plans were approved. Now they are still unhappy about the Shard. Some critics say that such a tall skyscraper might be good in a city like New York, but not in London. They say that the best thing about the Shard is its spire shape. But that is the only thing. There is no decoration, only flat surfaces. The Egyptians did that 4,500 years ago. They also think the Shard is too big for London. It destroys the beauty of the city.
Other critics don’t like what the Shard seems to represent. They say that the Shard shows how London is becoming more unequal. Only very rich people can afford to buy the expensive private apartments and stay in the hotel. But the people who live near the Shard are among the poorest in London. So the Shard seems a symbol of the division in society between the very rich and the poor.
The Shard now dominates the London skyline. It is not certain, however, that ordinary London citizens will ever accept it as a valuable addition to the city.
55. London’s newest skyscraper is called the Shard because of ______.
A. its cost
B. its size
C. its shape
D. its height
【解析】细节理解题。根据题干为什么伦敦这个新的摩天大楼被叫做Shard。我们可以将答案定位至第二段第四排到第五排内容：So the building has an unusual shape.It looks like a very thin,sharp piece of broken glass.And that is how the building got the name: Shard.可以得知答案为C项。
56. When he designed the Shard, Piano wanted it to ______.
A. change London’s skyline
B. inherit London’s tradition
C. imitate the Egyptian style
D. attract potential visitors
【解析】细节理解题。题干问及Piano设计这座大楼的设计理念，可以定位到第二段的倒数第二句话：Piano says that the spire shape of the Shard is part of a great London tradition所以答案为B项inherit London’s tradition。
57. The critics who refer to social division think the Shard ______.
A. is only preferred by the rich
B. is far away from the poor area
C. is intended for wealthy people
D. is popular only with Londoners
【解析】细节理解题。根据题干为什么批评者认为Shard造成了社会（贫富） 分离，可以定位到第三句Only very rich people can afford to buy the expensive private apartments and stay in the hotel. 所以答案为C项is intended for wealthy people.
58. Which would be the best title for the passage?
A. The Shard: Cheers and Claps
B. The Shard: Work of a Great Architect
C. The Shard: New Symbol of London?
D. The Shard: A Change for the Better?
【解析】主旨大意题。整篇文章论述的是伦敦新的摩天大楼的建造所带来的 争议。有人认为它是英国传统的传承，是一项很好的变化。但也有人提出质 疑。因此答案选D. The Shard: A Change for the Better?
Working with a group of baboons(狒狒）in the Namibian desert, Dr. Alecia Carter of the Development of Zoology, Cambridge University set baboons learning tasks involving a novel food and a familiar food hidden in a box. Some baboons were given the chance to watch another baboon who already knew how to solve the task, while others had to learn for themselves. To work out how brave or anxious the baboons were, Dr. Carter presented them either with a novel food or a threat in the form of a model of a poisonous snake.
She found that personality had a major impact on learning. The braver baboons learnt, but the shy ones did not learn the task although they watched the baboon perform the task of finding the novel food just as long as the brave ones did. In effect, despite being made aware of what to do, they were still too shy to do what the experienced baboon did.
The same held true for anxious baboons compared with calm ones. The anxious individuals learnt the task by observing others while those who were relaxed did not, even though they spent more time watching.
This mismatch between collecting social information and using it shows that personality plays a key role in social learning in animals, something that has previously been ignored in studies on how animals learn to do things. The findings are significant because they suggest that animals may perform poorly in cognitive(认知）tasks not because they aren’t clever enough to solve them, but because they are too shy or nervous to use the social information.
The findings may impact how we understand the formation of culture in societies. If some individuals are unable to get information from others because they don’t associate with the knowledgeable individuals, or they are too shy to use the information once they have it, information may not travel between all group members, preventing the formation of a culture based on social learning.
59.What is the first paragraph mainly about?
A. The significance of Dr. Carter’s research.
B. The purpose of Dr. Carter’s research.
C. The design of Dr. Carter’s research.
D. The results of Dr. Carter’s research.
【解析】段落大意题。通过第一段最后一句Dr. Carter presented them either with a novel food or a threat in the form of a model of a poisonous snake等细节 可知，第一段主要论述了Dr. Carter进行研究的设计，所以答案选C.The design of Dr. Carter’s research.
60. According to the research, which baboons are more likely to complete a new learning task?
A. Those that feel anxious about learning.
B. Those that like to work independently.
C. Those that can avoid potential risks.
D. Those that have more experience.
【解析】细节理解题。通过第三段第二句The anxious individuals learnt the task by observing others while those who were relaxed did not, even though they spent more time watching可知，答案选A. Those that feel anxious about learning.
61.Which best illustrates the “mismatch” mentioned in Paragraph 4?
A. Some baboons perform new tasks but don’t concentrate.
B. Some baboons observe others but don’t follow them.
C. Some baboons are shy but active in social activities.
D. Some baboons are intelligent but slow in learning.
【解析】猜词题。通过第四段第一句This mismatch，得知，这种mismatch 的行为应在上文第三段已经提及，因此可以定位到第三段The anxious individuals learnt the task by observing others while those who were relaxed did not, even though they spent more time watching.所以答案选B. Some baboons observe others but don’t follow them.
62. Dr. Carter’s findings indicate that our culture might be formed through_______.
A. traveling between social groups
B. understanding different people
C. learning from each other
D. storing information
【解析】推断题。通过最后一段最后一句If some individuals are unable to get information from others because they don’t associate with the knowledgeable individuals, or they are too shy to use the information once they have it, information may not travel between all group members, preventing the formation of a culture based on social learning.可知人们是在相互学习、交流中而形成的 文化。因此答案选C. learning from each other
You’ve flown halfway around the world; you’ve sniffed out this place that nobody in Falongland or Thailand seems to have ever heard of; so what on earth is there to do here? You consider this question as you sink into an old wooden beach chair above the sand.
It was a long journey from Bangkok to Huaplee. By the time you found the bus station and got yourself sorted out, it took almost as long as the flight from Falongland.
Huaplee is located just south of Hua Hin, about two hundred kilometres from Bangkok, down the west side of the Gulf of Thailand. Not many tourists find this place, and the ones that do wonder if finding it has been their purpose all along.
There’s an apparent laziness that surrounds you here. It’s what this place offers, and it’s free of charge. The small waves that tap the shoreline seem to slow everything down. You settle into your beach chair in preparation for a long rest. You sit there and watch the sea.
It’s early afternoon, so the cook comes out and asks what you’d like to eat this evening. Before long he’s rushed off to the market to buy the ingredients for whatever it was that you ordered—every meal fresh and to order. No menu here.
There is no poolside noise here but just that wonderfully warm, clear blue sea. There’s no street noise. The only sounds are the murmurs of nature.
For now you just count your blessings (福祉), listing them in the sand with your toe (脚趾). You don’t have to worry about being late for work. You don’t have to do anything.
The beach to your right stretches off to the horizon (地平线), slowly narrowing to nothingness only to re-emerge again on your left, now steadily widening until it covers the chair beneath you. Sand to your left and sand to your right; it’s unbroken, endless. No start, no end, just sand, sun, and peace. Step off it, and you re-enter the world of traffic, stress, work, and hurry.
Normally you’re the type who can’t sit still for more than ten minutes, but you’re on Huaplee Lazy Beach now and, in the right frame of mind, it stretches all the way around the world.
“How could it take me so long to find it?” you wonder.
63. When the author first went to Huaplee Beach, _______________ .
A. he had difficulty in finding it
B. he became sensitive to smell
C. he failed too sort himself out
D. he found it unworthwhile
【解析】推理判断题。题干意思为：当作者第一次去Huaplee Beach的时候， _________。可以定位到第二段，说明找到作者找到这个地方耗时很长，第 三段中也有与此呼应的地方：Not many tourists find this place. 可知这个地方不好找，所以答案为A项。
64. What is special about the food service at Huaplee Beach?
A. Quick delivery.
B. Self service.
C. Free food.
D. No menu.
【解析】细节理解题。题干意思为：Huaplee Beach的饮食服务有何特别之处？ 可以定位到文章涉及饮食的段落，即第五段。根据该段最后一句No menu here 可知，答案为D项。
65. In the author’s opinion, a tourist can enjoy Huaplee Beach most when he ______.
A. draws pictures in the sand
B. plans a detailed schedule
C. forgets his daily routine
D. sits in a beach chair
【解析】推理判断题。题干意思为：在作者看来，一名游客能够最好地享 受Huaplee Beach当他____________的时候。可以定位到文章中表示游客极 其享受的文段，即第七段：For now you just count your blessings , listing them in the sand with you toe. You don’t have to worry about being late for work. You don’t have to do anything，以及第八段：No start, no end, just sand, sun, and peace. Step off it, and you re-enter the world of traffic, stress, work, and hurry.从其中的表述可以逆向推出这些享受的时光的反面是：worry about being late for work; traffic, stress, work and hurry，而这些归结起来，即为人们日常的例 行公事，而要享受Huaplee Beach则需要暂时抛开这些，即答案为C项。
66. What does the author imply by his question at the end of the passage?
A. He should have come to the place earlier.
B. He shouldn’t have spent so much time on the trip.
C. He should have understood the wonder of nature.
D. He shouldn’t have counted the blessings.
【解析】推理判断题。题干意思为：文章结尾处作者的问题所暗含的意思是什么？。可以快速定位到最后一句:“How could it take me so long to find it?” 结合全篇文章所讲的去该“世外桃源”旅游的舒适惬意之感，可知作者是在感 叹与Huaplee Beach“相见恨晚”的感觉。所以答案为A项。
For most city people, the elevator is an unremarkable machine that inspires none of the enthusiasm or interest that Americans afford trains, jets, and even bicycles. Dr. Christopher Wilk is a member of a small group of elevator experts who consider this a misunderstanding. Without the elevator, they point out, there could be no downtown skyscrapers or tall buildings, and city life as we know it would be impossible. In that sense, they argue, the elevator’s role in American history has been no less significant than that of cars. In fact, according to Wilk, the car and the elevator have been locked on a “secret war” for over a century, with cars making it possible for people to spread horizontally(水平地), and elevators pushing them toward life in close groups of towering vertical(垂直的) columns.
If we tend to ignore the significance of elevators, it might be because riding in them tends to be such a brief, boring, and even awkward experience—one that can involve un expectedly meeting people with whom we have nothing in common, and an unpleasant awareness of the fact that we’re hanging from a cable in a long passage.
In a new book, Lifted, German journalist and cultural studies professor Andreas Bernard directed all his attention to this experience, studying the origins of elevator and its relationship to humankind and finding that riding in an elevator has never been a total comfortable experience, “After 150 years, we are still not used to it,” Bernard said, “ We still have not exactly learned to cope with the mixture of closeness and displeasure.” That mixture, according to Bernard, sets the elevator ride apart from just about every other situation we find ourselves in as we go about our lives.
Today, as the world’s urban population explodes, and cities become more crowded, taller, and more crowded, America’s total number of elevators—900,000 at last count, according to Elevator World magazine’s “2012 Vertical Transportation Industry”—are a force that’s becoming more important than ever. And for the people who really, really love them, it seems like high time that we looked seriously at just what kind of force they are.
67. What does the underline word “this” in Paragraph 1 refer to?
A. The enthusiasm for transport vehicles
B. The desire for a remarkable machine
C. The particular interest of experts
D. The general view of elevator
【解析】代词指代题。题干意思为：第一段中的划线词“this”指的是什么？可 以快速定位到第一段划线词所在句：Dr. Christopher Wilk is a member of a small group of elevator experts who consider this a misunderstanding. 大意为： “该教授认为这是误解”，而this通常指代上文的事物，因此可以定位到上一 句，即文章的首句：For most city people,…。从该句可以看出大多数都市人 认为电梯是unremarkable（平凡的），可知教授认为大多数人的这种认识是有误的，即答案为D项。
68. The author’s purpose in mentioning cars is .
A. to explain people’s preference for elevators
B. to reveal their secret war against elevators
C. to emphasize the importance of elevators
D. to contrast their functions with elevators
【解析】推理判断题。题干意思为：作者提到汽车的目的是________。可以定位到第一段第三、四句：Without the elevator, they point out, there could be no downtown skyscrapers or tall buildings, and city life as we know it would be impossible. In that sense, they argue, the elevator’s role in American history has been no less significant than that of cars. 第三句直接说明电梯的重要性，第四 句通过比较，说电梯的重要性不亚于汽车，可知作者提到汽车是为了强调电 梯的重要性，即答案为C项。
69. According to Prof. Bernard, what has made the elevator ride different from other life experiences?
A. Uncomfortable conditions
B. Little physical space
C. Lack of excitement
D. Vertical direction
【解析】细节理解题。根据题干意思，可定位到倒数第二段的最后一句话：That mixture, according to Bernard, sets the elevator ride apart from just about every other situation we find ourselves in as we go about our lives. 由此可知，使得elevator ride不同于其它生活经历的是that mixture, 而that mixture指的是 前一句的the mixture of closeness and displeasure, 即乘坐电梯时的封闭性和 令人不悦的影响，B项little physical space与文中closeness（封闭性）同义替 换，为正确答案。所以答案为B项。
70. The author urges readers to consider .
A. the relationship between cars and elevators
B. the role of elevators in city development
C. the serious future situation of elevators
D. the exact number of elevator lovers.
【解析】细节理解题。题干意思为：作者主张读者考虑_________。文章最后一段说明了随着城市的发展，电梯的作用越来越重要，且根据最后一句话：And for the people who really, really love them, it seems like high time that we looked seriously at just what kind of force they are. 可知作者主张人们在这样的城市发展节奏下，认真思考电梯的重要性，即答案为B项。