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system which just moves the wings has a number of interdependencies on the individual components, each of which individually has to perform well, but then has to be matched well to everything it’s connected to,” said Wood. The flight device was built into a set of power, computation, sensing and control systems. Wood says the success of the project proves that the flying robot with these tiny components can be built and manufactured.

While this first robotic flyer is linked to a small, off-board power source, the goal is eventually to equip it with a built-in power source, so that it might someday perform data-gathering work at rescue sites, in farmers’ fields or on the battlefield. “Basically it should be able to take off, land and fly around,” he said.

Wood says the design offers a new way to study flight mechanics and control at insect-scale. Yet, the power, sensing and computation technologies on board could have much broader applications. “You can start thinking about using them to answer open scientific questions, you know, to study biology in ways that would be difficult with the animals, but using these robots instead,” he said. “So there are a lot of technologies and open interesting scientific questions that are really what drives us on a day to day basis.”

72. The difficulty the team of engineers met with while making the robotic fly was that __________.
A. they had no model in their mind B. they did not have sufficient time
C. they had no ready-made components D. they could not assemble the components

73. It can be inferred from paragraphs 3 and 4 that the robotic fly __________.
A. consists of a flight device and a control system
B. can just fly in limited areas at the present time
C. can collect information from many sources
D. has been put into wide application

74. Which of the following can be learned from the passage?
A. The robotic flyer is designed to learn about insects.
B. Animals are not allowed in biological experiments.
C. There used to be few ways to study how insects fly.
D. Wood’s design can replace animals in some experiments.

75. Which of the following might be the best title of the passage?
A. Father of Robotic Fly B. Inspiration from Engineering Science
C. Robotic Fly Imitates Real Life Insect D. Harvard Breaks Through in Insect Study

Section C
Directions: Read the following text and choose the most suitable heading from A—F for each paragraph. There is one extra heading which you do not need.

A. Healthy way of life giving way to overuse of medicine
B. Different findings as to taking additional vitamin
C. EU’s response to overuse of health products
D. Worrying increase in multivitamin advertising
E. EU directive for the benefit of individuals
F. EU directive against prediction in novels

The use of health supplements such as multivitamin tablets has increased greatly in the western world. People take these supplements because advertising suggests that they prevent a range of medical conditions from developing. However, there is concern that people are consuming worryingly high doses of these supplements and the European Union (EU) has issued a directive that will ban the sale of a wide range of them. This EU directive should be supported.

Research suggests that people who take Vitamin C supplements of over 5000 milligrams a day are more likely to develop cancer. This shows how much damage these health supplements do to people’s health. A spokesman for the health supplement industry has argued that other research shows that Vitamin C supplements help prevent heart disease, but we can dismiss this evidence as it is from a biased source.

Science fiction of the 1960s and 1970s predicted that pills would replace meals as the way in which people would get the fuel they needed. This, it was argued, would mean a more efficient use of time as people wouldn’t have to waste it preparing or eating meals. The EU directive would help prevent this nightmare of pills replacing food becoming a reality.

Peop0le already take too many pills instead of adopting a healthier lifestyle. For example, the consumption of painkillers in Britain in 1998 was 21 tablets per year for every man, woman and child in the country. People do not need all these pills.

Some might argue that the EU directive denies people’s right to freedom of choice. However, there are many legal examples for such intervention when it is in the individual’s best interests. We now make people wear seatbelts rather than allowing them to choose to do so. Opposing the EU directive would mean beneficial measures like this would be threatened.

Section D

Directions: Read the passage carefully. Then answer the questions or complete the statements in the fewest possible words.
A study of more than five million books, both fiction and non-fiction, has found a marked decline in the use of emotional words over time. The researchers form the University of Bristol used Google Ngram Viewer, a facility for finding the frequency of terms in scanned books, to search for more than 600 particular words identified as representing anger, dislike, fear, joy, sadness and surprise.
They found that almost all of the categories (类别) showed a drop in these “mood words” over time. Only in the category of fear was there an increase in usage.

“It is a steady and continuous decrease,” said Dr Alberto Acerbi. He assumed that the result might be explained by a change in the position occupied by literature, in a crowded media landscape. “One thing could be that in parallel to books the 20th century saw the start of other media. Maybe these media—movies, radio, drama—had more emotional content than books.”

Although both joy and sadness followed the general downwards trend, the research, published in the journal PLOS One, found that they also exhibited another interesting behaviour:the ratio (比率) between the two varied greatly, apparently mirroring historical events.
During the Roaring Twenties the joy-to-sadness ratio reached a peak that would not occur again until before the recent financial crash. But the ratio plunged at the height of the Second World War. Nevertheless, the researchers held a reserved opinion about their claim that their result reflected wider social trends. In the paper, they even argue that the reverse could be true.

“It has been suggested, for example, that it was the suppression (压抑) of desire in ordinary Elizabethan English life that increased demand for writing ‘filled with romance and sex’… perhaps,” they conclude, “songs and books may not reflect the real population any more than catwalk models reflect the average body.”
(Note:Answer the questions or complete the statements in NO MORE THAN TEN WORDS.)

81. A study of more than five million books indicated a decline in “mood words” over time except

82. According to Dr Alberto Acerbi, one reason for the drop of “mood words” in books may be that

83. What were the two periods when the joy-to-sadness ratio was at its highest?

84. While the researchers found some changes in the use of “mood words” in books, they were
not sure that _______________.


I. Translation
Directions: Translate the following sentences into English, using the words given in the brackets.

1. 今年元旦我们玩得很开心。(enjoy)

2. 舅舅昨天寄给我一张卡片,祝贺我18岁生日。(congratulate)

3. 经过多年的建设,这个小镇现在和地震前一样充满了活力。(as...as)

4. 演出以一段五十多岁的人耳熟能详的经典音乐开始。(familiar)

5. 她一看完那个关于已灭绝物种的电视节目,就立志加入野生动物保护组织。(No sooner)

II. Guided Writing
Directions: Write an English composition in 120-150 words according to the instructions given below in Chinese.

1. 简述你写信的目的及你对场所的选择;
2. 说明你的理由(从便利性,专业性等方面对这两个场所进行对比)。