There has been a dramatic increase in the number of natural disasters over the past few years，and it is assumed that global warming and climate change could cause even more disasters in the future. Some of the world's leading cities are facing disasters like floods and heat waves.
London's flood defences are getting older. Since 1982, the Thames Barrier(水闸)has protected the city from the threat of flooding，but it was only designed to last until 2030 and close once every two or three years. About 21 years later the barrier now closes five or six times a year and according to Environment Agency predictions, by 2050 the barrier will be closed on almost every tide if the problem is not addressed.
There are 26 underground stations, 400 schools, 16 hospitals，an airport and 80 billion worth of property in London's flood risk area, so large scale flooding would be disastrous.
Over a six-week period in July and August 2008，more than 11400—mainly elderly people—died in France from dehydration (脱水) and extremely high body temperature in a deadly heat wave. Heat waves of similar intensity(强度)are expected every seven years by 2050, so what can be done to make sure such a disaster does not happen again?
One solution is to have air-conditioners installed in elderly care homes. But this is considered a short-term solution, as the increase in demand for electricity also increases carbon emissions.
In Paris the local authorities are encouraging architects to design new types of buildings such as the building “Flower Tower”， which uses a covering of bamboo to act as a natural air-conditioner.
Shanghai is the fastest growing city on Earth. It has a population of 18 million and is only 4 meters above sea level. Sea levels are predicted to rise by 20 cm within the next century.
An estimated 250,000 people move to Shanghai every year in search of work, placing extra demands on energy consumption. China relies heavily on coal-fired power stations, but these emissions increase temperatures and, in turn, warmer seas increase the risk of typhoons.
1. Which of the following would be the best title for the passage?
A. Big Cities Facing Big Disasters
B. Big Disasters in the Future
C. The Increase of Natural Disasters
D. Solutions to Natural Disasters
2. What problem should be settled now in London?
A. How to protect the city's property.
B. Where to build its flood defences.
C. How to use the Thames Barrier to protect the city.
D. How to improve the function of the old flood defences.
3. Which of the following measures can't solve the heat wave disaster in Paris?
A. Putting up new types of buildings with a covering of bamboo.
B. Having air-conditioners installed in elderly care homes.
C. Forbidding the city to build “Flower Tower”．
D. Encouraging architects to design new types of buildings.
4. The major threats to Shanghai are ________.
A. increasing population and coal-fired power stations
B. rising sea levels and typhoons
C. extremely high temperature and rising sea levels
D. extra demands on energy consumption and typhoons
5. The purpose of the passage is ________.
A. to tell us how to protect the big cities
B. to give advice on how to defend natural disasters
C. to explain what causes flood and heat waves
D. to warn us of the increasing natural disasters in big cities
1.A 主旨大意题。抓住关键词，全文主要是围绕着三个闻名于世的大城市面临的灾难展开介绍的，关键词是big city和disasters。
2.D 细节理解题。在介绍伦敦时，第一句话“London's flood defences are getting older.”就点明了伦敦的危机暗伏的原因是防洪堤老化。所以解决的方法就是改善防洪堤。