高中英语语法大全之形容词和副词(一)

 来源:互联网    要点:高中语法  
编辑点评: 形容词修饰名词,说明事物或人的性质或特征,是英语学习中最常见的语法。

形容词及其用法

形容词修饰名词,说明事物或人的性质或特征。通常,可将形容词分成性质形容词和叙述形容词两类,其位置不一定都放在名词前面。

1)直接说明事物的性质或特征的形容词是性质形容词,它有级的变化,可以用程度副词修饰,在句中可作定语、表语和补语。例如:hot 热的。

2)叙述形容词只能作表语,所以又称为表语形容词。这类形容词没有级的变化,也不可用程度副词修饰。大多数以a开头的形容词都属于这一类。例如:afraid 害怕的。

(错)He is an ill man.

(对)The man is ill.

(错)She is an afraid girl.

(对)The girl is afraid.

这类词还有: well,unwell,ill,faint,afraid,alike,alive,alone,asleep,awake 等。

3)形容词作定语修饰名词时,要放在名词的前边。但是如果形容词修饰以-thing为字尾的词语时,要放在这些词之后,例如:

something nice

-ly结尾的形容词

1)大部分形容词加-ly可构成副词。但 friendly,deadly,lovely,lonely,likely,lively,ugly,brotherly,仍为形容词。

改错:(错) She sang lovely.

(错) He spoke to me very friendly.

(对) Her singing was lovely.

(对) He spoke to me in a very friendly way.

2)有些以-ly 结尾既为形容词,也为副词。

daily,weekly,monthly,yearly,early

The Times is a daily paper.

The Times is published daily.

用形容词表示类别和整体

1)某些形容词加上定冠词可以泛指一类人,与谓语动词的复数连接。如:the dead,the living,the rich,the poor,the blind,the hungry

The poor are losing hope.

2)有关国家和民族的形容词加上定冠词指这个民族的整体,与动词的复数连用。

the British,the English,the French,the Chinese.

The English have wonderful sense of humor.

多个形容词修饰名词的顺序

多个形容词修饰名词时,其顺序为:

限定词--数词--描绘词--(大小,长短,形状,新旧,颜色) --出处--材料性质,类别--名词

a small round table

a tall gray building

a dirty old brown shirt

a famous German medical school

an expensive Japanese sports car

典型例题:

1) Tony is going camping with ___ boys.

A.little two otherB. two little otherC.two other littleD.little other two

答案:C。由"限定词--数词--描绘词--(大小,长短,形状,新旧,颜色) --性质--名词"的公式可知数词,描绘词,性质依次顺序,只有C符合答案。

2)One day they crossed the ____bridge behind the palace.

A. old Chinese stone B. Chinese old stoneC. old stone ChineseD. Chinese stone old

答案A. 几个形容词修饰一个名词,他们的排列顺序是:年龄,形状,大小+颜色+来源+质地+用途+国家+名词。

3) ---- How was your recent visit to Qingdao?

---- It was great. We visited some friends,and spent the ___days at the seaside.

A. few last sunnyB. last few sunnyC. last sunny fewD. few sunny last

答案:B。本题考查多个形容词的排序问题。一般与被修饰形容词关系密切的形容词靠近名词;如果几个形容词的重要性差不多,音节少的形容词在前,音节多的方在后,在不能确定时,可参照下表:

限定词+数量词(序数词在前,基数词在后)+性状形容词+大小、长短、高低等形体+

those + three + beautiful + large + square

新旧+颜色+国籍+材料+名词

old + brown + wood + table

副词及其基本用法

副词主要用来修饰动词,形容词,副词或其他结构。

一、副词的位置:

1) 在动词之前。

2) 在be动词、助动词之后。

3) 多个助动词时,副词一般放在第一个助动词后。

注意:

a. 大多数方式副词位于句尾,但宾语过长,副词可以提前,以使句子平衡。

We could see very clearly a strange light ahead of us.

b. 方式副词well,badly糟、坏,hard等只放在句尾。

He speaks English well.

二、副词的排列顺序:

1) 时间,地点副词,小单位的在前,大单位在后。

2) 方式副词,短的在前,长的在后,并用and或but等连词连接。

Please write slowly and carefully.

3) 多个不同副词排列:程度+地点+方式+时间副词。

注意:副词very 可以修饰形容词,但不能修饰动词。

改错:(错)I very like English.

(对)I like English very much.

注意:副词enough要放在形容词的后面,形容词enough放在名词前后都可。

I don't know him well enough.

There is enough food for everyone to eat.

There is food enough for everyone to eat.

兼有两种形式的副词

1) close与closely

close意思是"近"; closely 意思是"仔细地"

He is sitting close to me.

Watch him closely.

2)late 与lately

late意思是"晚"; lately 意思是"最近"

You have come too late.

What have you been doing lately?

3)deep与deeply

deep意思是"深",表示空间深度;deeply时常表示感情上的深度,"深深地"

He pushed the stick deep into the mud.

Even father was deeply moved by the film.

4)high与highly

high表示空间高度;highly表示程度,相当于much

The plane was flying high.

I think highly of your opinion.

5)wide与widely

wide表示空间宽度;widely意思是"广泛地","在许多地方"

He opened the door wide.

English is widely used in the world.

6)free与freely

free的意思是"免费";freely 的意思是"无限制地"

You can eat free in my restaurant whenever you like.

You may speak freely; say what you like.

形容词与副词的比较级

大多数形容词(性质形容词)和副词有比较级和最高级的变化,即原级、比较级和最高级,用来表示事物的等级差别。原级即形容词的原形,比较级和最高级有规则变化和不规则

最新2020高中语法信息由沪江高考资源网提供。

请输入错误的描述和修改建议,建议采纳后可获得50沪元。

错误的描述:

修改的建议: