高一英语语法:数词的用法详解

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1. 拼法需要当心的序数词

在first,second和third之后的序数词都由基数词加 -th构成,但要注意以下拼法略有变化:

twentieth, thirtieth, fortieth… fifth eighth ninth twelfth..

2. 序号的表示

1) 基数词放在名词之后,通常写作阿拉伯数,如:

page 4(P.4)读作page four Room301读作room three O [ou] one

Tel No.864412读作telephone number eight six double four one two

2) 序数词放在名词之前,通常前面要加定冠词.如:

the Eighth Lesson(=Lesson Eight) the First Middle School(=Middle School No. 1)

3. 数词后面的名词用单数还是用复数

表示计量时,基数词后面的名词用复数形式,但是在带有数字的复合名词(常用作定语)里,名词只用单数形式。试比较:

They baby is only six moths old. This is a six-moth-old baby.

I have five pounds. I have a five-pound note.

4. hundreds / thousands / millions of + 名词复数

hundred, thousand和million后加 –s与of连用,表示“数百、数千、数百万”。

He has bought hundreds of books this year.

Thousands of seagulls arrived to help the farmers save their crops.

5. dozen和score

用法与hundred, thousand, million基本相似dozens of和scores of均表示“几十个”。但有以下几点区别:

1) 在接具体名词复数时dozen后不加of,而score常与of连用。如:

two dozen books two score (of)books

2) 若名词被限定词限定,dozen后应加of,接宾格代词亦如此。

three dozen of those (the, my, those) books three dozen of them

6. 表示不定数量的常用单词和词组

这些单词或词组与名词的搭配关系见下表

用于可数名词用于不可数名词用于可数名词和不可数名词

a bit of

(a) few(a) littleall

fewe rless plenty of

(the) fewest(the) leasta lot of; lots of

a (great) number ofa great deal (amount) ofenough

manymuchmore; most

several some; any

hundreds of

dozens of

1) (a) few 和(a) little

a few和a little与some的意思较接近,表示“有几个;有一点”。few和little则表示“几乎没有(= almost none)”的意思。试比较:

She doesn’t seem very friendly; she has few friends。 (not many friends)

Although she has been here only a short time, she has made a few friends. (some friends)

I can’t make a pie because there is little sugar. (not much sugar)

There is a little sugar for your coffee. (some sugar)

2) 用fewer还是用less

从理论上讲few的比较级形式fewer用于复数名数前;little的比较级形式less用于不可

数名词前,但是在现代英语中,尤其是在非正式场合下,也常用less代替fewer;例如:

If on1y there were fewer/less holes in the roof?

3) many + a + 名词单数

many a后接可数名词单数形式,表示“好些;许多”,多用于书面语或演讲中。

Many a young man has had such a chance. (动词用has)

many a time则看作是固定词组,表示“多次”。

That’s happened to me many a time.

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