71. Which of the following is most likely to be a bad sign for LIPITOR takers?
A. Drinking alcohol twice a day.
B. Changes in medical tests.
C. Discomfort and ache in muscles.
D. Feeling tired after a day’s work.
72. Which of the following statements is TRUE according to the text?
A. LIPITOR should never be taken with other food at the same time.
B. Skipping is the best choice for those who have missed one dose.
C. People can consult the professionals for details of the medicine.
D. Recommendation is encouraged if one feels LIPITOR to be good.
Therapists have long known that men and women experience their blues differently. Yet when clinicians designed the guidebook they use to diagnose (诊断) psychiatric maladies, they made the descriptions gender-neutral. Today, evidence is mounting that in turning a blind eye to gender, they are actually doing their patients a disservice. As more researchers investigate sex differences in depression, the inescapable conclusion is that gender influences every aspect of these disorders.
More recently, researchers have started to study the deeper dissimilarities. Perhaps the most important of these, and the one most frequently misunderstood by people of both genders, is the difference in symptoms expressed by women and men. For women, the primary emotion of depression is usually sadness. For men, it is more typically anger or irritability, often coupled with recklessness (不顾一切). As a result, many women and men, including depressed men, mistake male depression for general frustration and restlessness rather than a serious disorder in desperate need of intervention. Depressed men are also much less likely to seek help than depressed women, and they are much more likely to hurt themselves.
The big question is whether the variations are a matter of nature or nurture (后天养育). Some researchers believe the brain chemistry of depression is the same in men and women but that social norms do not let men express sadness, so they often have difficulty articulating their symptoms. “They’ll say, ‘I’m not getting as much done,’ or ‘I keep getting into fights with my girlfriend,’ rather than ‘I’m sad,’” says Sam Cochran, director of counseling at the University of Iowa. “But once we get past that, the symptoms are pretty much the same as for the female patients.”
Cochran and others who emphasize the importance of cultural influences are increasingly in the minority. An ever growing body of evidence suggests that biology sets men and women apart in ways that have real consequences for mood and behavior. Not surprisingly, these differences emerge from the very substances that define gender in the first place: sex hormones (激素).
Understanding the effects of these hormones on the brain may be the only way to make sure that every depressed patient gets the right treatment. The biochemistry of sex hormones in the brain, however, is difficult to study because the hormones themselves are hard to measure and their effects are so widespread. But the evidence is strong for a primary role in gross brain physiology. The male brain tends to be larger than the female brain and matures more slowly. Although scientists have not yet pinpointed the mechanism behind the delay, animal research has shown that one main component (组成部分) of the male hormones can increase brain size by stimulating the production of a protein that contributes to neuron (神经元) development. The additional growth may mean that the male brain needs more time to reach full maturity.
73. What did the author say of the action of describing the symptoms gender-neutral?
A. It is quite reasonable for the clinicians to make it gender-neutral.
B. Clinicians are unaware of the different responses male and female make.
C. Therapists should have made the real conditions known to the public.
D. It is better if patients could learn the truth from the researchers.
74. According to the passage, when it comes to depression, men _____.
A. would share his own sorrows with his friends
B. actually call for immediate help from others
C. are less likely to express his anger than women
D. are mistaken because of their frustration
75. For those believing in nurture theory, men would have these responses because _____.
A. men are normally expected to be stronger than women are
B. sex hormones have a bigger impact on men than on women
C. men are less likely to be influenced by traditional beliefs
D. men’s shyness prevent themselves from expressing their emotions
76. Which of the following is TRUE according to the last two paragraphs?
A. More scientists believe it is nurture that leads to the variations in symptoms.
B. Different elements of sex hormones may result in different depression symptoms.
C. It takes men far more time to get matured than women.
D. Scientists did experiments on animal reactions because it was hard to measure hormones.
77. Which of the following might be the best title of the passage?
A. Sex matters in understanding depression reactions
B. How different people suffer from depression
C. Reasons for our blues
D. Different theories in explaining depression symptoms
Directions: Read the passage carefully. Then answer the questions or complete the statements in the fewest possible words.
In a few years you will be able to order a transcript of your entire genetic code for less than $1,000. Adults cannot do much to alter their biological lot, but what if parents could examine their unborn child’s genome? Two different university laboratories have developed tests that will reveal the entirety of a baby’s genetic code using just a blood sample from the mother plus a drop of saliva (唾液) from the father.
Prenatal (出生前的) whole-genome sequencing will provide volumes of information beyond the currently available tests exclusively for genetic disorders such as Down’s syndrome or Tay-Sachs disease. The three billion units of code furnished in the new tests will also dwarf the relative trickle (零散) of information provided by consumer gene-testing services such as 23andMe, which currently look only at perhaps about one million locations in the genome.
Attitudes toward child rearing might change along with the new technology. Without careful planning, the new prenatal genetics might rob a child of the chance to make decisions best left until adulthood — whether or not to learn, for instance, if a mutation (突变) predicts the inevitability of Huntington’s disease 20 years hence.
Another fear is that a customer without conferring with a genetics counselor can receive information via the Internet about a multifold greater risk of breast cancer. Similar laissez-faire action to prenatal whole-genome testing could portend (预示) tragedy.
Ultimately certain agency will need to develop a comprehensive policy on prenatal whole-genome testing. Bioethics scholars wrote an analysis last summer that calls on the medical community to develop a guide to the most relevant genomic data for future parents. Unfortunately, there aren’t nearly enough trained genetics counselors to handle the coming upsurge in demand for this type of information. Without access to a much higher level of refined expertise, the secrets of our offspring’s genetic code will continue to remain an unnerving cipher — or worse.
(Note: Answer the questions or complete the statement in NO MORE THAN TEN WORDS.)
78. __________ is / are needed to complete a prenatal whole-genome testing.
79. In which two ways is the new testing better than the current one?
80. Under the influence of the new testing, when will decisions concerning the child be probably made according to the passage?
81. “Similar laissez-faire action to the testing” in Paragraph 5 probably refers to __________.