2013高考英语新课标卷1试题及答案详解(含下载)【沪江网校】

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第三部分  阅读理解(共两节,满分40分)

第一节(共15小题;每小题2分,满分30分)

阅读下列短文,从每题所给的四个选项(A、B、C和D)中,选出最佳选项,并在答题卡上将该项涂黑。

A

Some people will do just about anything to save money. And I am one of them. Take my family’s last vacation. It was my six-year-old son’s winter break from school, and we were heading home from Fort Lauderdale after a weeklong trip. The flight was overbooked, and Delta, the airline, offered us $400 per person in credits to give up our seats and leave the next day. I had meetings in New York, so I had to get back. But that didn't mean my husband and my son couldn't stay. I took my nine-month-old and took off for home.

The next day, my husband and son were offered more credits to take an even later flight. Yes, I encouraged-okay, ordered-them to wait it out at the airport, to "earn" more Delta Dollars. Our total take: $1,600. Not bad, huh?

Now some people may think I'm a bad mother and not such a great wife either. But as a big-time bargain hunter, I know the value of a dollar. And these days, a good deal is something few of us can afford to pass up.

I've made living looking for the best deals and exposing (揭露) the worst tricks. I have been the consumer reporter of NBC's Today show for over a decade. I have written a couple of books including one titled Tricks of the Trade: A Consumer Survival Guide. And I really do what I believe in.

I tell you this because there is no shame in getting your money’s worth. I’m also tightfisted when it comes to shoes, clothes for my children, and expensive restaurants. But I wouldn't hesitate to spend on a good haircut. It keeps its longer, and it's the first thing people notice. And I will also spend on a classic piece of furniture. Quality lasts.

56. Why did Delta give the author's family credits?

A. They took a later flight.

B. They had early bookings.

C. Their flight had been delayed.

D. Their flight had been cancelled.

57. What can we learn about the author?

A. She rarely misses a good deal.

B. She seldom makes a compromise.

C. She is very strict with her children.

D. She is interested in cheap products.

58. What does the author do?

A. She's a teacher.

B. She's a housewife.

C. She's a media person.

D. She's a businesswoman.

59. What does the author want to tell us?

A. How to expose bad tricks.

B. How to reserve airline seats.

C. How to spend money wisely.

D. How to make a business deal.

【总评】这篇文章讨论的是如何节约用钱,以及如何花钱才能物有所值。开篇引入话题save money,接下来以自己乘飞机的亲身经历来阐述。接下来再提到自己这种像是“把钱花在刀刃上”的生活方式,也成就了自己的工作。

56. A. They took a later flight.

【解析】细节题。由Delta定位到第一段,The flight was overbooked, and Delta, the airline, offered us $400 per person in credits to give up our seats and leave the next day.可知,因为航班超额预定,航空公司不得不取消我们的座位,让我们乘坐第二天的航班,正因为此,他们为我们提供了补贴。由此可知,正确答案为A。

57. A. She rarely misses a good deal.

【解析】细节题。由文中第三段And these days, a good deal is something few of us can afford to pass up.可知,如今几乎没有人负担得起拒绝一个好的交易,而从作者之前的经历来看,她也甚至钱的价值,所以正确答案为A。

58. C. She's a media person.

【解析】细节题。由关键词consumer reporter定位文章第四段。I have been the consumer reporter of NBC's Today show for over a decade. I have written a couple of books…作者是美国广播公司今日秀节目的记者,并且写过一些书。由此可知,作者是个媒体人。因此,正确答案为C。

59. C. How to spend money wisely.

【解析】主旨题。由关键词getting your money worth定位文章最后一段。I tell you this because there is no shame in getting your money’s worth.把钱花在恰当的地方,让物有所值,不是什么害臊的事。由此可知,本文主要告诉我们该如何明智的花钱。因此,正确答案为C。

B

The baby is just one day old and has not yet left hospital. She is quiet but alert (警觉)。Twenty centimeters from her face researchers have placed a white card with two black spots on it. She stares at it carefully. A researcher removes the card and replaces it by another, this time with the spots differently spaced. As the cards change from one to the other, her gaze(凝视) starts to lose its focus - until a third, with three black spots, is presented. Her gaze returns: she looks at it for twice as long as she did at the previous card. Can she tell that the number two is different from three, just 24 hours after coming into the world?

Or do newborns simply prefer more to fewer? The same experiment, but with three spots shown before two, shows the same return of interest when the number of spots changes. Perhaps it is just the newness? When slightly older babies were shown cards with pictures of objects (a comb, a key, an orange and so on), changing the number of objects had an effect separate from changing the objects themselves. Could it be the pattern that two things make, as opposed to three? No again. Babies paid more attention to squares moving randomly on a screen when their number changed from two to three, or three to two. The effect even crosses between senses. Babies who were repeatedly shown two spots became more excited when they then heard three drumbeats than when they heard just two; likewise(同样地) when the researchers started with drumbeats and moved to spots.

60. The experiment described in Paragraph 1 is related to the baby’s__.

A. sense of hearing.

B. sense of sight.

C. sense of touch.

D. sense of smell.

61.Babies are sensitive to the change in______.

A. the size of cards.

B. the colour of pictures.

C. the shape of patterns.

D. the number of objects.

62.Why did the researchers test the babies with drumbeats?

A. To reduce the difficulty of the experiment.

B. To see how babies recognize sounds.

C. To carry their experiment further.

D. To keep the babies’ interest.

63.Where does this text probably come from?

A. Science fiction.

B. Children’s literature.

C. An advertisement.

D.A science report.

【总评】本篇文章为科技文。文章主要围绕婴儿视觉实验而展开研究。先是用有不同数字黑点的纸板测孩子的视觉反应,接下来是加入鼓声作为背景进一步研究婴儿对数字的视觉敏感。

60.B. sense of sight.

【解析】细节题。第一段中She stares at it carefully. A researcher removes the card and replaces it by another, this time with the spots differently spaced. As the cards change from one to the other,her gaze(凝视) starts to lose its focus - until a third, with three black spots, is presented. Her gaze returns: she looks at it for twice as long as she did at the previous card.婴儿仔细盯着白板上的两个黑点看。然后纸板交换,婴儿视觉开始不能聚焦核心,换成3个黑点时,婴儿又开始集中注视了。由此可知,该实验是研究婴儿的视觉。因此,正确答案为B。

61.D.the number of objects.

【解析】细节题。还是看第一段,As the cards change from one to the other,her gaze(凝视) starts to lose its focus - until a third, with three black spots, is presented. Her gaze returns: she looks at it for twice as long as she did at the previous card.卡片改变时,直到出现3个黑点纸板时,婴儿又开始集中注视了。由此可知,婴儿对于有不同数目黑点的纸板比较敏感。因此,正确答案为D。

62.C.To carry their experiment further.

【解析】推理题。由关键词drumbeats定位文章第二段。The effect even crosses between senses. Babies who were repeatedly shown two spots became more excited when they then heard three drumbeats than when they heard just two;likewise(同样地) when the researchers started with drumbeats and moved to spots.测验效果在不同感官间交叉。与听到两声鼓声相比,当听到三声鼓声的时候婴儿看着两个点会变得更兴奋。由此可知,鼓声是一个背景,测试的还是婴儿听不同次数鼓声时对看到的纸板数字的反应。因此,正确答案为C。

63.D.A science report.

【解析】推测题。由文中第一段出现researcher,以及第二段中出现experiment,可以推测。该文是一篇科技报道。因此,正确答案为D。

C

It happened to me recently. I was telling someone how much I had enjoyed reading Barack Obama’s Dreams From My Father and how it had changed my views of our President. A friend I was talking to agreed with me that it was, in his words, “a brilliantly(精彩地)written book”. However, he then went on to talk about Mr Obama in a way which suggested he had no idea of his background at all. I sensed that I was talking to a book liar.

And it seems that my friend is not the only one. Approximately two thirds of people have lied about reading a book which they haven’t. In the World Book Day’s “Report on Guilty Secrets”, Dreams From My Father is at number 9. The report lists ten books, and various authors, which people have lied about reading, and as I’m not one to lie too often (I’d hate to be caught out), I’ll admit here and now that I haven’t read the entire top ten. But I am pleased to say that, unlike 42 percent of people, I have read the book at number one, George Orwell’s 1984. I think it’s really brilliant.

The World Book Day report also has some other interesting information in it. It says that many people lie about having read Jane Austen, Charles Dickens, Fyodor Dostoevsky (I haven’t read him, but haven’t lied about it either) and Herman Melville.

Asked why they lied, the most common reason was to “impress” someone they were speaking to. This could be tricky if the conversation became more in–depth!

But when asked which authors they actually enjoy, people named J. K. Rowling, John Grisham, Sophie Kinsella (ah, the big sellers, in other words). Forty-two percent of people asked admitted they turned to the back of the book to read the end before finishing the story (I’ll come clean: I do this and am astonished that 58 percent said they had never done so).

64. How did the author find his friend a book liar?

A. By judging his manner of speaking.

B. By looking into his background.

C. By mentioning a famous name.

D. By discussing the book itself.

65. Which of the following is a “guilty secret” according to the World Book Day report?

A. Charles Dickens is very low on the top-ten list.

B. 42% of people pretended to have read 1984.

C. The author admitted having read 9 books.

D.Dreams From My Father is hardly read.

66. By lying about reading, a person hopes to      .

A. control the conversation

B. appear knowledgeable

C. learn about the book

D. make more friends

67. What is the author’s attitude to 58% of readers?

A. Favorable.

B. Uncaring

C. Doubtful

D. Friendly

【总评】这是一篇讨论“读书谎言”的文章,话题比较贴近考生的生活。由作者发现一个朋友撒谎说读过Barack Obama的 Dreams From My Father引入话题。进而用数据说明了,撒谎人数之多,有2/3的人曾撒谎说读过某本书。文章第四段提及,撒谎的主要原因是想要给别人留下好印象。最后一段列举了当今人们最喜欢的作家,作者还表达了对会提前看结局的人数的质疑。

64. D. By discussing the book itself.

【解析】细节题。由关键词find his friend a book liar定位至文章第一段。由“However, he then went on to talk about Mr. Obama in a way which suggested he had no idea of his background at all.”可知,作者发现朋友撒谎,是因为朋友对此书的深入讨论暴露了他对奥巴马背景的无知,因此,正确答案为D。

65. B. 42% of people pretended to have read 1984.

【解析】推理题。由关键词guilty secret定位至文章第二段。由“But I am pleased to say that, unlike 42 percent of people, I have read the book at number one, George Orwell’s 1984. I think it’s really brilliant.”,结合上文“The report lists ten books, and various authors, which people have lied about reading”可推测出,有42%的人撒谎说读过1984,因此,正确答案为B。

66. D. make more friends

【解析】细节题。由题干By lying about reading, a person hopes to定位至文章第四段。由 “Asked why they lied, the most common reason was to ‘impress’ someone they were speaking to.”可知,大多说人撒谎是想要给别人留下好印象,从而结交更多朋友,因此,正确答案为D。

67. C. Doubtful

【解析】态度题。由关键词58% of readers定位至文章第五段。由 “I’ll come clean: I do this and am astonished that 58 percent said they had never done so”可知,作者对这58%的人表示怀疑,因此,正确答案为D。

D

The National Gallery

Description:

The National Gallery is the British national art museum built on the north side of European art ranging from 13th-century religious paintings to more modern ones by Renoir and Van Gogh. The older collections of the gallery are reached through the main entrance while the more modern works in the East Wing are most easily reached from Trafalgar Square by a ground floor entrance.

Layout:

The modern Sainsbury Wing on the western side of the building houses 13th-to15th-century paintings, and artists include Duccio, Uccello, Van Eyck, Lippi, Mantegna, Botticelli and Memling.

The main West Wing houses 16th-century paintings, and artists include Leonardo da Vinci, Cranach, Michelangelo, Raphael, Bruegel, Bronzino, Titan and Veronese.

The North Wing houses 17th-century paintings, and artists include Caravaggio, Rubens, Poussin, Van Dyck, Velazquez, Claude and Vermeer.

The East Wing houses 18th-to early 20th-century paintings, and artists include Canaletto, Goya, Turner, Constable, Renoir and Van Gogh

Opening Hours:

The Gallery is open every day from 10am to 6pm (Fridays 10anm to 9pm) and is free, but charges apply to some special exhibitions.

Getting There:

Nearest underground stations: Charing Cross (2-minute walk), Leicester Square (3-minute walk), Embankment (7-minute walk), and Piccadilly Circus (8-minute walk).

68.In which century’s collection can you see religious paintings?

A.The 13th

B.The 17th

C.The 18th

D.The 20th

69.Where are Leonardo da Vinci’s works shown?

A.In the East Wing.

B.In the main West Wing.

C.In the Sainsbury Wing.

D.In the North Wing.

70.Which underground station is closest to the National Gallery?

A.Piccadilly Circus.

B.Leicester Square.

C.Embankment.

D.Charing Cross.

【总评】这是一篇关于The National Gallery,英国国家美术馆的参观指南。文章对国家美术馆的藏品、布局、开放时间及周边交通作了介绍。

68. A. The 13th

【解析】细节题。由religious paintings定位至Description部分。由 “ranging from 13th-century religious paintings”可知,宗教绘画是13世纪的藏品,因此,正确答案为A。

69. B. In the main West Wing.

【解析】细节题。由Leonardo da Vinci定位至Layout部分。由 “The main West Wing houses 16th-century paintings, and artists include Leonardo da Vinci…”可知,Leonardo da Vinci的作品在the main West Wing展出,因此,正确答案为B。

70. D. Charing Cross.

【解析】细节题。由underground station定位至Getting There部分。由此段可知,从Charing Cross至美术馆走路只需两分钟,因此,正确答案为D。

第二节(共5小题:每小题2分,满分10分)

根据短文内容,从短文后的选项中选出能填入空白处的最佳选项选项中有两项为多余选项。

Business is organized approach to providing customers with the goods and services they want. The word business also refers to an organization that provides these goods and services. Most businesses seek to make a profit (利润) —that is, they aim to achieve income that is more than the costs of operating the business. __71__Commonly called nonprofits, these organizations are primarily nongovernmental service providers. __72__

Business management is a term used to describe the techniques of planning, direction, and control of the operations of a business.__73__One is the establishment (制定) of broad basic policies with respect to production; sales; the purchase of equipment, materials and supplies; and accounting __74__The third relates to the establishment of standards of work in all departments. Direction is concerned primarily with supervision (监管) and guidance by the management in authority.__75__

A. Control includes the use of records and reports to compare actual work with the set standards for work.

B. In this connection there is the difference between top management and operative management.

C. Examples of nonprofit business include such organizations as social service agencies and many hospitals.

D. However, some businesses only seek to earn enough to cover their operating costs.

E. The second aspect relates to the application of these policies by departments.

F. In the theory of business management, organization has two main aspects.

G. Planning in business management has three main aspects.

【解析】

本文是一篇讨论商务和商务管理的说明文。虽然看似有很多专业术语,但是根据我们常说的“指路词”,以及对上下文的推理,其实要做出正确答案并不难,可谓是难度中等。

文章第一段描述了business的两个含义:一是提供顾客所要商品和服务的方法;二是提供这些商品和服务的组织。

文展第二段则细述了商务管理是用来描述计划、指导以及控制公司运作技巧的术语,并在下文中对这三方面进行了一一阐述。

71. D. However, some businesses only seek to earn enough to cover their operating costs.

【解析】推理题。本题的后一句出现了一个新名词nonprofits(非盈利),而前文的内容是在说大多数企业都在寻求利润,那这里语义的突然变化就提示了我们空格处所填内容应该与seek to make a profit(寻求利益)语义相反,而与nonprofit相同,因为只有这样才能自然的引出下文。纵观选项,只有答案D出现了however,表示语义的转折,所以正确答案为D。

72.C. Examples of nonprofit business include such organizations as social service agencies and many hospitals.

【解析】推理题。根据文意,前文提到的these organizations are primarily nongovernmental service providers中的these organizations实指non profits organizations,所以此处72题的内容应该是对nongovernmental service providers(非政府服务提供商)的进一步解释。纵观选项,只有答案C是在举例子,而且也出现了关键词nonprofit,所以正确答案为C。

73.G. Planning in business management has three main aspects.

【解析】 推理题。这道题的解题方法就是我们说的充分利用“指路词”。下文中出现了One is...,The third relates...,可见本空是个总起句,概括了什么东西包含有三个方面。纵观选项,只有答案G出现了three,且主语planning正好复现了第二段首句出现的techniques of planning,所以正确答案为G。

74. E. The second aspect relates to the application of these policies by departments.

【解析】推理题。还是依靠“指路词”,文中出现过了第一和第三,所以本空肯定描述的是第二方面。纵观选项,只有答案E出现了the second,所以答案为E。

75. A. Control includes the use of records and reports to compare actual work with the set standards for work.

【解析】推理题。观察第二段可知,商务管理中涉及的techniques of planning, direction均已经提到,只差最后一个control(控制)还未提及,所以本空一定和control有关。纵观选项,只有答案A出现了关键词control,所以答案为A。

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