2014高考英语核心考点:时态

所属专题:2016高考复习核心考点  来源:互联网    要点:英语时态  
编辑点评: 本文是2014高考英语核心考点的整理,为大家详细的整理了高考英语中的考点,是英语知识点的归纳总结,在本文中,全面为大家解答了高考英语中的时态部分的考点,包括一般现在时,过去时,将来时等,同时有习题练习。欢迎大家参阅~

高考英语知识点之时态

1. 一般现在时

①表示客观事实或普通真理(不受时态限制)
The geography teacher told us the earth moves around the sun.
Water boils at 100oC.
②表示现状、性质、状态时多用系动词或状态动词;表示经常或习惯性的动作,多用动作动词,且常与表频率的时间状语连用。
Ice feels cold.
We always care for each other and help each other.
③表示知觉、态度、感情、某种抽象的关系或概念的词常用一般现在时:see、hear、smell、taste、feel、notice、agree、believe、like、hate、want、think、belong seem等。如:
I know what you mean.
Smith owns a car and a house.
All the students here belong to No.1 Middle School.
④在时间、条件状语从句中常用一般现在时代替将来时。但要注意由if 引导的条件状语从句中可以用shall或will表“意愿”,但不表示时态。
If you will accept my invitation and come to our party, my family will be pleased.如果你愿意接受并参加我们的舞会,我的家人会非常高兴。
⑤少数用于表示起止的动词如come、go、leave、arrive、fly、return、start、begin、pen、close、end、stop等常用一般现在时代替将来时,表示一个按规定、计划或安排要发生的动作。当be表示根据时间或事先安排,肯定会出现的状态,只用一般现在时。
The shop closes at 11:00 p.m. every day.
Tomorrow is Wednesday.

2. 一般过去时

①一般过去时的基本用法:表示过去的事情、动作或状态常与表示过去具体的时间状语连用(或有上下文语境暗示);用于表达过去的习惯;表示说话人原来没有料到、想到或希望的事通常用过去式。如:
I met her in the street yesterday.
I once saw the famous star here.
They never drank wine.
I thought the film would be interesting,but it isn’t.
②如果从句中有一个过去的时间状语,尽管从句中的动作先于主句发生,但从句中的谓语动词连用过去式。如:
He told me he read an interesting novel last night.
③表示两个紧接着发生的动作,常由以下词语连接,用一般过去时。如:but, and, when, as soon as, immediately, the moment, the minute。
The moment she came in, she told me what had happened to her.
He bought a watch but lost it.
④常用一般过去时的句型:
Why didn’t you / I think of that?
I didn’t notice it.
I forgot to tell you I had been there with my brother before.
I didn’t recognize him.

3. 一般将来时

①表示未来的动作或状态常用will / shall + 动词(常与表示将来的时间状语边用如tomorrow、next week等)。
②表示一种趋向或习惯动作。
We’ll die without air or water.
③表示趋向行为的动词如come、go、start、begin、leave等词常用进行时的形式表示将来时。
④be going to与will / shall, be to do, be about to do用法及区别:
be going to 表示现在打算在最近或将来要做某事,这种打算往往经过事先考虑,甚至已做了某种准备;shall / will do表示未事先考虑过,即说话时临时作出的决定。
be going to 表将来,不能用在条件状语从句的主句中;而will则能,表意愿。如:
If it is fine, we’ll go fishing.(正确)
If it is fine, we are going to go fishing.(错误)
be to do sth.表按计划、安排即将发生的动作,还可表示吩咐、命令、禁止,可能性等。
A meeting is to be held at 3:00 o’clock this afternoon.
be about to do sth.表示“即可,就要”,后面不能接时间状语或状语从句。
Autumn harvest is about to start.

4. 现在进行时

①表示说话时正在发生着的一个动作;表示现阶段但不一定是发生在讲话时;表近期特定的安排或计划;go、come等起止动作可用进行时代替将来时。如:
It is raining now.
He is teaching English and learning Chinese.
I am meeting Mr. Wang tonight.
We are leaving on Friday.
At six I am bathing the baby.(I start bathing the bady before six.)
The girl is always talking loud in public.(与always、often等频度副词连用,表经常反复的行动或某种感情色彩)
②下面四类动词不宜用现在进行时。(A)表示心理状态、情感的动作:like, love, hate, care, remember, believe, want, mind, wish, agree, mean, need。(B)表存在的状态的动词:appear, exist, lie, remain, seem belong to, depend on。(C)表示一时性动作的动词:allow, accept, permit, promise, admit, complete。(D)表示感官的动词:see, hear, notice, feel, smell, sound, taste, look。

5. 过去完成时

①常用过去完成时的几种情况:(A)在by、by the end、by the time、until、before、since后接表示过去某一时间的短语或从句以前发生的动作。如:By the end of last year, we had produced 20,000 cars. The train had left before we reached the station. (B)表示曾实现的希望、打算、意图、诺言等。常用had hoped / planned / meant / intended/
though / wanted / expected等或用上述动词过去式接不定式完成式表示即:hoped / planned … + to have done。(C)“时间名词 + before”在句子中作状语,谓语动词用过去完成时;“时间名词 + ago”在句中作状语,谓语动词用一般过去式。如:He said his first teacher had died at least 10 years before. Xiao Hua left school 3 years ago.(D)表示“一……就”的几个句型:Hardly / No sooner / Scarcely had + 主语 + 过去分词 + when / than / before + 一般过去时。如:We had no sooner been seated than the bus started. = No sooner had we been seated than the bus started.
②在before或after引导的时间状语从句中用一般过去时态代替过去完成时。
After he (had)left the room, the boss came in.
We arrived home before it snowed.

6. 过去将来时

参照一般将来时对比:用would do、was / were going to do sth.表过去将来;come、go、leave等过去进行时表过去将来时;was / were to do sth.和was / were about to do sth.表过去将来。

7. 过去进行时

①过去某一时刻正在进行的动作或某一阶段内发生或频繁发生。
②某一动作发生时另一动作正在发生,其中一个在由when或while引导的时间状语从句中。

8. 现在完成时

①现在完成时除可以和for、since引导的状语连用外,还可以和下面的介词短语连用:during / in /over the last(past)few years (months, weeks)、in recent years等。
②下列句型中常用现在完成时
It is (has been) + 一段时间 + since从句
This(That / It)is the first(second…)time that + 完成时
This(That / It)is the only … + that + 完成时
This(that / It)is the best / finest / most interesting … + that 从句 + 完成时
③在时间或条件状语从句中,现在完成时可以代替一般将来时。如:
I shall post the letter as soon as I have written it.
If you have done the experiment, you will realize the theory better.
Don’t get off the bus until it has stopped.

9. 时态区别

①一般过去时与现在完成时:时间上有差异:凡有过去时间的均用过去时态,不能用完成时态,如含有ago、last year、just now、the other day等。
结果上有差异:现在完成时强调的是对“现在”的影响和结果,动作到现在刚完成或还在继续;一般过去时强调的是动作发生在“过去”,和现在毫无关系。
②过去完成时与一般过去时:过去完成时强调的是“过去的过去”;如出现同一主语连续几个动作(“连谓”)形式则只用一般过去时即可。

2、被动语态考查要点简述

被动语态的构成方式:be + 过去分词,口语只也有用get / become + 过去分词表示。被动语态的基本用法:不知道或没必要提到动作的执行者是谁时用被动语态。强调或突出动作的承受者常用被动语态(by短语有时可以省略)。
(1)使用被动语态时应注意的几个问题。
①主动变化被动时双宾语的变化。看下列例句。
My friend gave me an interesting book on my birthday.
An interesting book was given to me(by my friend)on my birthday.
I was given an interesting book (by my friend)on my birthday.
②主动变被动时,宾补成主补(位置不变);(作补语的)不定式前需加to。
The boss made him work all day long.
He was made to work all day long(by the boss)
③短语动词变被动语态时,勿要掉“尾巴”。
The children were taken good care of (by her).
Your pronunciation and spelling should be paid attention to.
④情态动词和be going to、be to、be sure to、used to、have to、had better等结构变被动语态,只需将它们后面的动词原形变为be +过去分词。
⑤当句子的谓语为say、believe、expect、think、know、write、consider、report等时,被动语态有两种形式:(A)谓语动词用被动语态,动词不定式作主补。(B)用it作形式主语,真正的主语在后面用主语在后面用主语从句来表示。如:
People say he is a smart boy.
It is said that he is a smart boy.
He is said to be a smart boy.
It is known that paper was made in China first.
Paper was known to be made in China first.
类似句型有:It is said / known / suggested / believed / hoped/ thought that …
(2)不能用被动语态的几种情况。
①所有的不及物动词或不及物动词词组不能用于被动语态之中。
②表示状态的谓语动词,如:last、hold、benefit、contain、equal、fit、join、mean、last、look like、consist to等。
③表示归属的动词,如have、own、belong to等。
④表示“希望、意图”的动词,如:wish、want、hope、like、love、hate等。
⑤宾语是反身代词或相互代词时谓语动词用主动语态,不能用被动语态。
⑥宾语是同源宾语,不定式、动名词等谓语动词不用被动语态。
⑦有些动词以其主动形式表示被动意义,特别是当主语是物时,常见的动词有sell、write、wash、open、lock等。
(3)主动形式表被动意义。
①当feel、look、smell、taste、sound等后面接形容词时;当cut、read、sell、wear、write等词带状语修饰语时;当动词表示“开始、结束、关、停、转、启动”等意义时。
This kind of cloth washes easily.这种布易洗。
These novels won’t sell well.这些小说不畅销。
My pen writes smoothly.我的钢笔写起来很流畅。
The door won’t lock.门锁不上。
The fish smells good.鱼闻起来香。
②当break out、take place、shut off、turn off、work out等动词表示“发生、关闭、制定”等意思时。
The plan worked out successfully.
The lamps on the wall turn off.
③want, require, need后面的动名词用主动表示被动含义。
④be worth doing用主动形式表示被动含义。
⑤在“be + 形容词 + to do”中,不定式的逻辑宾语是句子的主语,用主动代被动。
This kind of water isn’t fit to drink.
The girl isn’t easy to get along with.
另外:be to blame(受谴责),be to rent(出租)也用主动形式表被动。
(4)被动形式表示主动意义的几种情况。
①be seated坐着
He is seated on a bench.(He seats himself on a bench.)坐在凳子上。
②be hidden躲藏
He was hidden behind the door.(He hid himself behind the door.)他藏在门后。
③be lost迷路
④be drunk喝醉
⑤be dressed穿着
The girl was dressed in a red short skirt.
(5)被动语态与系表结构的区别
被动语态强调动作;系表结构表主语的特点或状态。如:
The book was sold by a certain bookstore.(被动语态)
The book is well sold.(系表结构)

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