2014高考英语核心考点:名词、介词、主谓一致、代词

所属专题:2016高考复习核心考点  来源:互联网    要点:2014高考英语考点  
编辑点评: 本文是2014高考英语核心考点的整理,为大家详细的整理了高考英语中的考点,是英语知识点的归纳总结,在本文中,全面为大家整理了代词,介词,名词的考点要点,并且附有习题练习。欢迎大家参阅~

名词、主谓一致、介词、代词

名 词

【要点点拨】

一. 可数名词的复数构成规则:

1.规则变化:加-s, -es; 辅音字母加y结尾的去y加ies;把f/ fe变成ves;
(1)keys , three Henrys; stomachs; safes; beliefs; proofs; roofs; gulfs; chiefs; heroes; potatoes; tomatoes; Negroes; dingoes A
(2) 缩写,数字,字母等在后面加s或’s都可,如: some VIPs (VIP’s); in his 50s / 50’s; in the 1990s / 1990’s; There are two t’s in the word “letter”.
2.不规则变化:
(1) men , children , feet, teeth, geese, mice; oxen等;
(2) 单复数形式相同:sheep; deer; fish; means; works(工厂); Chinese; Japanese; Swiss; (teas, fruits, fishes, metals等表示种类);
(3)只有复数形式:trousers, glasses(眼镜);remains(遗体/物);clothes; ashes; contents(目录); goods; customs(海关); arms(武器);
(4)复合名词的复数形式: shoe shops; lookers-on; grown-ups; passers-by; daughters-in-law
(5)表示某国人的复数形式:A:单复一样:Chinese / Japanese) B: 把man变成men : Englishmen; Frenchmen; C:其它加s (包括Germans)

二、 不可数名词

1.量的表示:用some / a little / much等表示数量的词(组)及单位名词(量词),用得较多的有piece, article, bottle, head, loaf, bar等:a piece of advice / bread / news / information / equipment / chalk / cloth / clothing / music / work / furniture / paper / wood / baggage; a loaf of bread; a bar of chocolate ; two head of cattle
2.不可数名词具体化: These games are great successes; The party was a great success.

三、 名词的所有格:

1.表示有生命的名词后加’s, 如一样东西为几人共有,则在最后一个名词后加’s: Jack and Tom’s room(两人共有的房间); Jack’s and Tom’s rooms(两人各自的房间);表示无生命的名词的所有格用of表示:the windows of the room;
(但表示时间、距离、国家、城市、团体、机构等无生命的名词后也可加’s: China’s industry; today’s paper; ten minutes’ walk)
2.表示“某人家里”“某店铺”等的名词所有格后省略所修饰的名词:at my aunt’s (house); at the doctor’s (office); go to the chemist’s (shop);
3.双重所有格:a / an / this / that / these / those / some / any / a few / no / every / several / such / another / which 等+名词+of +…..’s / 名词性物主代词(表示“部分”的概念或表示某种感情色彩,如:赞赏、讨厌等);
比较:
a friend of her mother’s她母亲的一个朋友(强调她母亲的朋友中的一位,为双重所有格)
a friend of her mother她母亲的朋友(强调两人间的关系,为of所有格)
a picture of his brother’s(他弟弟的所拥有的照片中的一张,照片上不一定是他本人)
a picture of his brother(他弟弟本人的一张照片,照片上就是他本人)

四、 名词作定语修饰名词:前一个名词表示后一个名词的特点、性质及用途;

(1)一般前面的名词用单数形式,复数加在后面主体名词上:shoe shop(s); story book(s); coffee cup(s); physics teacher(s); 个别名词修饰另外一个名词用复数形式:sales manager; sports meet; 由man / woman与另一个名词构成复合名词两者都变复数:men/ women doctors;
(2)比较名词作定语及形容词作定语的不同意义:
a dust bag ( a bag for dust) 装灰尘的袋子/ a dusty bag布满灰尘的袋子 a chemical change化学变化(具有化学性质的变化)/ a chemistry teacher( a teacher of chemistry)一个化学老师
a gold watch 一只金表(表材质)/ a golden watch一只金黄色的表

五.英语中”很多”的表达:

只修饰可数名词:quite a few / a great many (of) / many / a (large / small) number of
只修饰不可数名词: a great deal of / a great amount of ( great amounts of)
既可修饰可数也可修饰不可数名词:plenty of / a lot of ( lots of ) / a (large) quantity of / large quantities of

【各个击破】

1.No regular advertiser dare produce anything that fails to stick to the _____of his advertisement.
A. standard B. level C. message D. promise
2.-----What do you think of his composition?
------Much better, but there’s still some ______for improvement.
A. space B. room C. area D. place
3. Sometimes doctors make higher ______ for their work than they should.
A. bills B. charges C. costs D. prices
4. The ______of a big snake made her frightened, so she sat there still.
A. sight B. look C. view D. scene
5.No ______ she fell ill, considering that she had been overworking for years.
A. problem B. way C. wonder D. matter
6. -----How is it that you lost your way?
------When I came to the crossroads, I went the wrong ________.
A. way B. direction C. distance D. path
7. Little Tom asked me for small _________ for his _________piece, so I gave him ________.
A. change; ten pennies; ten pence B. changes; ten pennies; ten pence
C. change; ten pence; ten pennies D. changes; ten pence; ten pennies
8. Will you please tell me _______you are talking about?
A. which Zhang Yimou’s film B. which film of Zhang Yimou
C. which film of Zhang Yimou’s D. zhang Yimou’s which film
9. The baby broke a _______which is made of _____just now.
A. tea cup; glass B. cup of tea; glass C. tea’s cup; glasses D. tea cup; glasses
10. Look, Mother has just bought three _______ and _______.
A. fruit; lots of vegetables B. fruits; a number of vegetables
C. fruit; a great many of the vegetables D. fruits; a great amount of vegetables
11. If you get the job you’ll have to make business ______every now and then.
A. journeys B. trips C. travels D. voyages
12. I listened to his lecture about biology , but I missed the key ______.
A. messages B. sense C. notes D. points
13. He is always full of ______as though he never knew tiredness.
A. strength B. force C. power D. energy
14.There has been a great _______ in the number of cars in our city in the past five years.
A. increase B. improvement C. result D. effect
15. I don’t think it’s my ______ that the TV doesn’t work. I just turned it off.
A. mistake B. fault C. duty D. error
16. ---- What’s the ______ of this pair of shoes?
---- 500 yuan.
---- Oh, it’s really too expensive.
---- But it’s comfortable, so I think it’s good _______ for money.
A. cost; value B. price; value C. price; cost D. cost; price
17. How did you like the ________of the interpreter(口译员)at the conference on TV?
A. performance B. achievement C. material D. words
18.She is not in good _______for such heavy work.
A. state B. condition C. position D. situation
19.It’s bad _______ for a man to smoke in public places where smoking is not allowed.
A. manners B. action C. movement D. manner
20. Johnson is an honest businessman. Our company and his has had a lot of _______ in the past few years.
A. agreements B. sales C. deals D. bargains

主谓一致

【要点点拨】
英语句子中谓语动词的数必须与主语的人称和数取得一致,这就叫做主谓一致。解决主谓一致主要遵循三个原则:语法一致原则、意义一致原则和就近一致原则。

1:either , neither , each , one , the other , another , anybody , anyone , anything , somebody , someone , something , everything ,everybody , everyone ,no one , nothing ,nobody 做主语时,谓语一般用单数。
Neither of the two sentences is correct .
Everything around us is matter .
(注意:none , neither, all ,any作主语时,谓语可用单数,也可用复数,具体取决于说话人的意思。)
None of them owns/own a car .
Neither of the boys are / is interested in geography.
All are here. And all that can be done has been done.

2 :表示“时间、距离、金额、重量、面积、体积、容积”等度量的名词做主语时,谓语用单数。
Five minutes is enough .
Four hundred francs is a lot of money .

3:each …and each …,every …and every ;no …and no ;many a …and many a …等结构由于强调个体行为,因此谓语动词使用单数。
Each boy and each girl has got a new English-Chinese dictionary .
No sound and no voice is heard for a long time .

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